Foraminifera: A Proxy for Ecology, Climate Change and Its Associated Hydro−Environment

Ajhar Hussain *

Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India.

Nepal Singh

Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India.

Fatma Ahmed

Department of Microbiology, IIMT, Aligarh, UP 202001, India.

Nimra Ahsan

Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India.

Ayan Ahmad

Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India.

Nuzhat Fatima

Department of Geology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, UP 202002, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Paleocanography, the study of ancient oceans, relies heavily on a wide range of proxies and methodologies to reconstruct past oceanic conditions. Among these tools, foraminifera, microscopic marine organisms with calcium carbonate shells, have played a pivotal role. Over the years, researchers have harnessed the insights provided by foraminifera to unlock the secrets of Earth's oceans throughout geological history. This comprehensive review explores the various ways in which foraminifera have been employed in paleocanography, shedding light on past climate, ocean circulation, ecology, and more. The application of foraminifera represents a sustainable approach with far-reaching implications for environmental, ecological, and geological research. Foraminifera, microscopic marine protists characterized by calcium carbonate shells, serve as valuable indicators of past and present environmental conditions. They are instrumental in the fields of paleoecology, stratigraphy, environmental impact studies, and ocean acidification research. This abstract highlights the sustainable aspect of using foraminifera as bioindicators to assess the health of marine ecosystems, monitor climate change, and investigate the impact of human activities. By providing insights into the past and present, foraminifera contribute to informed decision-making in conservation, resource management, and addressing critical environmental challenges. Their application stands as a testament to the enduring value of these microorganisms in understanding and safeguarding our planet's natural resources and ecosystems, exemplifying the sustainability of scientific research driven by a profound respect for the Earth's history and future well-being.

Keywords: Foraminifera, paleoecology, environment, marine, multi-proxies

How to Cite

Hussain, A., Singh , N., Ahmed, F., Ahsan , N., Ahmad , A., & Fatima , N. (2023). Foraminifera: A Proxy for Ecology, Climate Change and Its Associated Hydro−Environment. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(23), 197–212.


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