Effects of Pollution on the Haematology of Cyprinus carpio Inhabiting two Government Sponsored Fish Ponds in East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India

PDF

Published: 2023-12-27

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i243833

Page: 239-251


Eva Mary Pala *

Department of Zoology, Shillong College, Shillong-793003, Meghalaya, India.

Shanwell Khongwir

Department of Zoology, Shillong College, Shillong-793003, Meghalaya, India.

Lucy Mary Jyrwa

Department of Zoology, Shillong College, Shillong-793003, Meghalaya, India.

Proforma Suchiang

Department of Zoology, Kiang Nangbah Government College, Jowai-793150, Meghalaya, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Adult Cyprinus carpio were collected from two government sponsored fish ponds located at Fish Dale and Laitkyrhong, East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India. The effects of pollutants on haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio were studied. The results showed a decline in RBC and WBC count and haemoglobin content in fishes collected from Laitkyrhong. Micronucleus assaywas carried out following standard protocols and observations were made using Olympus, BX- 53 image analyser, CellSens Standard (software). Analysis showed a number of micronucleus and nuclear abnormalities of the erythrocytes of Cyprinus carpio from Laitkyrhong as compared to fishes from Fish Dale. Scanning Electron Microscopy study revealed swollen erythrocytes called spherocytes, ruptured erythrocytes and crenations at the erythrocyte membranes while the control erythrocytes showed normal features. The Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopic analysis was by INCA-7582 (Oxford) Energy Dispersive X-ray microanalyser equipped with a Si (Li) high resolution detector attached to the scanning electron microscope, JSM-6360 (Jeol). Differences in the EDS spectra of RBCs from control, Laitkyrhong and Fish Dale fishes were observed to be in terms of Silicon (Si), Aluminium (Al) and Titanium (Ti) were absent in the control sample. The presence of silicon in erythrocytes of fishes inhabiting Fish Dale and Laitkyrhong area suggests that silicon may be the main factor for the various deformities in the haematological parameters of Cyprinus carpio. The deformities observed may affect the growth and survival of these fishes. Therefore, there is a constant need to check the flow of polluted waters in the rearing ponds especially during the rainy seasons. The present study suggests that haematological study may serve as a tool in determining the health of the fish and the type of environment in which it lives.

Keywords: Pollution, Cyprinus carpio, blood, SEM, microanalysis


How to Cite

Pala , E. M., Khongwir, S., Jyrwa, L. M., & Suchiang, P. (2023). Effects of Pollution on the Haematology of Cyprinus carpio Inhabiting two Government Sponsored Fish Ponds in East Khasi Hills District, Meghalaya, India. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 44(24), 239–251. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2023/v44i243833

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Liaqat I, Bukhtiar U, Malik MK. Pond water pollution: A barrier to commercial fish production. International Journal of Applied Biology and Forensics. 2017;1(1):21-24.

Edun OM, Alon R, Panpinit P, Dokubo T, Nweke T, Ogolo C. Effects of water quality of the Boguwa Creek on tilapia culture. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 2014;9(6):463-467.

Jindal R, Kaur M. Ultrastructural alterations in scales of Ctenopharyngodonidellus (Cuvier & Valenciennes) induced by chlorpyrifos: a promising tool as bioindicator of pesticide pollution. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2015;2(3):58-62. Available:http://www.fisheriesjournal.com

Dane H, Sisman T. Histopatholoical changes in gill and liver of Capoetacapoetaliving in the Karasu River, Erzurum. Environmental Toxicology. 2015;30(8):904-917. Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/tox.21965

Pandey PK, Kass PH, Soupir ML, Biswas S, Singh VP. Contamination of water resources by pathogenic bacteria. AMB Express. 2014;4:51 Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s13568-014-0051-x

Schindler DW. Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. Science. 1988; 239:149-157.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1126/science.239.4836.149

Yadav A, Sah, PK, Chakradhari S, Rajhans KP, Ramteke S, Dahariya NS, Agnihotri G, Patel KS. Urban pond water contamination in India. Journal of Environmental Protection. 2016;7:52-59.

Available:https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2016.71005

Skordas E, Kelepertzis E, Kosmidis D, Panagiotaki P, Vafidis D. Assessment of nutrients and heavy metals in the surface sediments of the artificially lake water reservoir Karla, Thessaly, Greece. Environmental Earth Sciences. 2015;73:4483-4493. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-014-3736-1

Holopainen J, Oikari A. Ecophysiological effects of temporary acidification on crucian carp, Carassius carassius (L.): A case history of a forest pond in eastern Finland. Ann. Zool. Fennici. 1992;29:29-38.

Available:www.jstor.org/stable/23735340

Mukhopadhyay C, Vishwanath S, Eshwara VK, Shankaranarayana SA, Sagir. A. Microbial quality of well water from rural and urban households in Karnataka, India: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Infection and Public Health. 2012;5(3):257-262. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2012.03.004

Yang G, Fan M, Zhang G. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China. Environmental Research Letters. 2014; 9 04018. Available:https://doi.org/doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/9/7/074018

Amoatey P, Baawain MS. Effects of pollution on freshwater aquatic organisms. Water Environment Research. 2019; 91(10):1272-1287. Available:https:// doi.org/10.1002/wer.1221

Nikalje SB, Muley DV, Angadi SM. Histopathological changes in gills of a freshwater major carp Labeorohita after acute and chronic exposure to textile mill effluent (tme). International Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2012;3(1):108-118. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.015

Flores-Lopes F, Thoma, AT. Histopathological alterations observed in fish gills as a tool in environmental monitoring. Brazilian Journal of Biology. 2011;71(1):179-188.

Available:https:// doi.org/ 10.1590/S1519-69842011000100026

Brraich OS, Jangu S. Fish scale as pollution indicator in Harike wetland. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences. 2013;3(2):173-182.

Abalaka SE. Histopathological evaluation of Oreochromis mossambicus gills and liver as biomarkers of earthen pond water pollution. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2017;15(1):57-66.

Available:https://doi.org/10.4314/sokjvs.v15i.8

Brraich OS, Jangu S. Comparative account of accumulation of heavy metals and structural alterations in scales of five fish species from Harike Wetland, India. Iranian Journal of Ichthyology. 2016;3(4):275-282.

Available:https:// doi.org/10.7508/iji.2016

Mahboob S, Khalid A, Al-Ghanim HF, Al-Balawi F, Al-Misned ZA. Toxicological effects of heavy metals on histological alterations in various organs in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from freshwater reservoir. Journal of King Saud University-Science. 2020;32:970-973. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2019.07.004

Abiona OO, Anifowose AJ, Awojide SH, Adebisi OC, Adesina BT,Ipinmoroti MO. Histopathological bio marking changes in the internal organs of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and catfish (Clarias gariepinus) exposed to heavy metals contamination from Dandaru pond, Ibadan, Nigeria. Journal of Taibah University for Science. 2019;13(1):903-911. Available:https:// doi.org/ 10.1080/16583655.2019.1658400

Dixit J, Kumar V. Effects of chromium (VI) on haematological parameters in Channa punctatus (Bloch, 1973). International Journal of Environment and Climate Change. 2023;13(9):1782-1789.

Available:https://doi.org/10.9734/ijecc/2023/v13i92407

Pala EM, Dey S, Borkotoki A. Scanning electron microscopy of the scales of a fresh water fish, Channa gachua inhabiting a North-East Indian hill stream contaminated by municipal wastes and other pollutants. Journal of Advanced Microscopy Research. 2013;8:21-26.

Pala EM. Electron microscopic analysis of skin in a fresh water fish, Channa gachua inhabiting a polluted hill stream. Journal of Advanced Microscopy Research. 2014;9:1-4.

Gabriel UU, Obomanu FG, Edori OS. Biochemical changes in hybrid catfish (Heterobranchusbidorsalis, Clarias gariepinus) treated with nuracron. Chinese Journal of Applied and Environmental Biology. 2010;16(3):353-357.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3724/SP.J.1145.2010.00353

Jacquin L, Petitjean Q, Cote J, Laffaille P, Jean S. Effects of pollution on fish behavior, personality and cognition: Some Research Perspectives. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 2020; 8(86): 1-12.

Available:https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2020.00086

Tripathi S, Sahu DB, Kumar R, Kumar A. Effects of acute exposure of sodium arsenite (Na3ASO3) on some haematological parameters of Clarias batrachus (common Indian cat fish) in vivo. Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 2003;45(3):183-188.

Wintrobe MM. Clinical Haematology. Lea and Febiger, USA; 1957.

Shah SL, Altindağ A. Hematological parameters of tench (Tinca tinca L.) after acute and chronic exposure to lethal and sublethal mercury treatments. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 2004;73(5):911-918. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-004-0513-y

Nigam A, Ayyagari A. Lab Manual in Biochemistry, Immunology and Biotechnology. Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited, West Pater Nagar, New Delhi; 2008.

Schmidt W. Themicronucleus test. Mutation Research. 1975;31:9-15. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1161 (75)90058-8

Krishna G, Hayashi H. In vivo rodent micronucleus assay: Protocol, conduct and data interpretation. Mutation Research. 2000;455(1-2):155-166. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/s0027-5107 (00)00117-2

Dey S, Baul TSB, Roy B, Dey D. A new rapid method of air-drying for scanning electron microscopy using tetramethyl silane. Journal of Microscopy. 1989;156:259-261.

Bhatnagar A, Cheema N, Yadav AS. Alterations in haematological and biochemical profile of freshwater fish, Cirrhinusmrigala (Hamilton) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of Chlorpyrifos. Journal of Nature Environment and Pollution Technology. 2017;16(4):1189-1194.

Ugokwe U, Awobode HO. Alterations in water quality, enzyme levels and haematology of Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia) from river Ogun at Abeokuta Nigeria. International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2015;4(10):1-9. Available:http://www.isca.in and http://www.isca.me

Islam SMM, Rahman MA, Nahar S, Uddin MH, Haque MM, Shahjahan M. Acute toxicity of an organophosphate insecticide sumithion to striped catfish Pangasianodonhypophthalmus. Toxicology Reports. 2019;6:957-962.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2019.09.004

Ghayyur S, Khan MF, Tabassum S, Ahmad MS, Sajid M, Badshah K, Khan MA, Saira, Ghayyur S, Khan NA, Ahmad B, Qamer S. A comparative study on the effects of selected pesticides on hemato-biochemistry and tissue histology of freshwater fish Cirrhinusmrigala (Hamilton, 1822). Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2021;28(1):603-61.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.10.049

Yonar SM, Yonar ME, Pala A, Sağlam N, Sakin F. Effect of trichlorfon on some haematological and biochemical changes in Cyprinus carpio: The ameliorative effect of lycopene. Aquaculture Reports 16. 2020;1-6.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aqrep.2019.100246

Abdel-Wahab A, Abdel-Warith, El-SayedMIY, Nasser AA, Ahmed MR, Hasan YA. Bioaccumulation of lead nitrate in tissues and its effects on hematological and biochemical parameters of Clarias gariepinus. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2020;27(3):840-845. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.015

Verburg van Kemenade BM, Nowak B, Engelsma MY, Wyets FA. Differential effects of cortisol on apoptosis and proliferation of carp B lymphocytes from head, kidney, spleen and blood. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 1999;9:405-415.

Donaldson EM, Dye HM. Corticosteroid concentrations in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchusnerka) exposed to low concentrations of copper. Journal of Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 1975;32:533-539.

Witeska M. Stress in fish-hematological and immunological effects of heavy metals. Electronic Journal of Ichthyology. 2005;1:35-41.

Dube SC, Munshi JSD. A quantity study of the erythrocytes and haemoglobin inthe blood of an air-breathing fish, Anabas testudineus (Bloch) in relation to its body size. Folia Haematologica. 1973;100:436-446.

Ko HD, Park HJ, Kang JC. Change of growth performance, hematological parameters, and plasma component by hexavalent chromium exposure in starry flounder, Platichthysstellatus.Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2019;22(9):1-7.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1186/s41240-019-0124-5

Meraj M, Ali MN, Ganai BA, Bhat FA, Ganaie HA, Ahmed A. Alterations in liver maker enzymes and recovery ability of cyprinids as indicators of aquatic pollution. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24:19149-19158.

Available: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9572-6

Pamila D, Subbaiyan PA, Ramaswamy M. Toxic effect of chromium and cobalt on Sartherodonmossambicus (peters). Indian Journal of Environmental Health. 1991;33:218-224.

Salvagni J, Ternus RZ, Fuentefria AM. Assessment of the genotoxic impact of pesticides on farming communities in the countryside of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2011;34(1):122-126.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572010005000104

Matsumoto ST, Mantovani MS, Malaguttii MIA, Dias AL, Fonseca IC, Morales MAM. Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of water contaminated with tannery effluents, as evaluated by the micronucleus test and comet assay using the fish Oreochromis niloticus and chromosome aberrations in onion root-tips. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2006;29(1):148-158. Available:https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572006000100028

Costa PM, Lobo J, Caeiro S, Martin M, Ferreira AM, Caetano M, Vale C, Delvalls TA, Costa MH. Genotoxic damage in Solea senegalensis exposed to sediments from the Sado Estuary (Portugal): effects of metallic and organic contaminants. Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2008;654(1):29-37.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.04.007

Talapatra SN, Banerjee SK. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labeo bata cultivated in sewage fed fish farms. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2007;45(2):210-215.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2006.07.022

Amaeze NH, Komolafe BO, Salako AF, Akagha KK, Briggs TD, Olatinwo OO, Femi MA. Comparative assessment of the acute toxicity, haematological and genotoxic effects of ten commonly used pesticides on the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus Burchell 1822. Heliyon. 2020;6(8):e04768.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04768

Ali D, Almarzoug MHA, Ali HA, Samdani MS, Hussain SA, Alarifi S. Fish as bio indicators to determine the effects of pollution in river by using the micronucleus and alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay. Journal of King Saud University-Science.2020;32(6):2880-2885. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.07.012

Massar B, Dey S, Barua R, Dutta K. Microscopy and microanalysis of haematological parameters in common carp, Cyprinus carpio, inhabiting a polluted lake in North East India. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 2012;18:1077-1087.

Kehinde H, Okoro, Ajibola O, Iyiola, Isaac, Segun SO, Oladipo. Determination of heavy metal genotoxicity and their accumulation pattern in different fish organs of selected fish species collected from the Asa River, Iiorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. 2016;20(3):735-745.

Available:http://www.ajol.info and http://www.bioline.org.br/ja

Hussain B, Sultana T, Sultana S, Masiyd MS, Ahmed Z, Mahboob S. Fish eco-genotoxicology: Comet and micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes as in situ biomarker of freshwater pollution. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2018;25:393-398. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.11.048

D’Costa AH, Shyama SK, Kumar MP, Fernandes TM. Induction of DNA damage in the peripheral blood of zebrafish (Danio rerio) by an agricultural organophosphate pesticide, monocrotophos. International Aquatic Research. 2018;10:243-251. Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40071-018-0201-x

Sánchez-Galán S, Linde AR, Izquierdo JI, García-Vásquez E. Micronuclei and fluctuating asymmetry in brown trout (Salmo trutta): complementary methods to biomonitor freshwater ecosystems. Mutation Research. 1998;412:219-225. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5718 (97)00186-1

Ayllon F, Garcia-Vazquez E. Induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in European minnow Phoxinusphoxinus and molliePoecilialatipinna: an assessment of the fish micronucleus test. Mutation Research. 2000;467(2):177-186. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/S1383-5718 (00)00033-4

Kirschbaum AA, Seriani R, Pereira CDS, Assunção A, Abessa DMS, Rotundo MM, Ranzani-Paiva MJT. Cytogenotoxicity biomarkers in fat snook Centropomusparallelus from Cananéia and Sao Vicente estuaries, SP, Brazil. Genetics and Molecular Biology. 2009:32(1):151-154. Available:https://doi.org/10.5132/jbse.2012.02.010

Seriani R, Ranzani-Paiva MJT, Silva-Souza, ÂT, Napoleão SR. Haematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Franciscoriver, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences. 2010;33(1):107-112.

Available:https://doi.org/10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i1.7117

Kumar M, Kumar D, Kumar R. Effects of heavy metals cadmium, lead and copper on the blood characteristics of fresh water catfish Clariasbatrachus (Linn.). International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Sciences. 2017;4(1):129-134. Available:https://doi.org/10.22192/ijarbs.2017.04.01.014

Luca GD, Gugliotta T, Parisi G, Romano P, Geraci A, Romano P, Geraci A, Romano O, Scuteri A, Romano L. Effects of nickel on human and fish red blood cells. Bioscience Reports. 2007; 27(4-5): 265-273.

Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s10540-007-9053-0

Khatun MM, Mostakim GM, Moniruzzaman M, Rahman UO, Islam MS. Distortion of micronuclei and other peripheral erythrocytes caused by fenitrothion and their recovery assemblage in zebrafish.Toxicology Reports. 2021;8(1):415-421. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.02.019

Witeska M, Kosciuk B. Changes in common carp blood after short-term zinc exposure. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2003;10(5):284-286. Available:https://doi.org/10.1065/espr2003.07.161

Nikinmaa M, Huestis WH. Adrenergic swelling of nucleated erythrocytes: cellular mechanisms in a bird, domestic goose, and two teleosts, striped bass and rainbow trout. Journal of Experimental Biology. 1984;113:215-224.

Suwalsky M, Norris, Villena F, Sotomayor P, Zatta P. Aluminium fluoride affects the structure and function of cell membranes. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2004;42(6):925-933 Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2004.01.016

Chvapil M, Stankova L, Malshet V. Lipid peroxidation as one of the mechanisms of siliafibrogenicity? I. Study with erythrocytes. Environmental Research. 1976;11(1):78-88. Available:https:// doi.org/ 10.1016/0013-9351(76)90112-2

Zhao Y, Sun X, Zhang G, Trewyn BG, Slowing II, Lin VS. Interaction of mesoporous silica nano particles with human red blood cell membrane: size and surface effects. ACS Nano. 2011; 5(2):1366-1375.