Microplastic Contamination in Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and Finletted Mackerel (Megalaspis cordyla): Exploring Occurrence and Variability in Skin and Gill Tissues

Athiramol P. S.

Department of Zoology, Mar Thoma College, Thiruvalla-689103, India.

Susan Thomas *

Department of Zoology, Mar Thoma College, Thiruvalla-689103, India.

Ann Mary Jacob

Department of Zoology, Union Christian College, Aluva-683201, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Two marine fish species: Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and finletted mackerel (Megalaspis cordyla), were collected from a local fish market near Thiruvalla in Pathanamthitta district, Kerala. Various types of microplastics (such as films, fibres, fragments, and lines) were identified using visual analysis conducted with the aid of light microscopy. This study unveiled a concentration (23%) of microplastics in gill tissues (Rastrelliger kanagurta) when compared to the skin (30%) In fish Rastrelliger kanagurta), indicating different pathways of uptake.  Megalaspis cordyla had a greater percentage of microplastics in the skin (25%) than in the gills (22%); also indicating different pathways. There was an abundance of microplastics in the form of film at (25%) than in flake, granules, foam, fibre etc. which all stood at 10%, 10%, 10% and 20% abundance, respectively. Notably, Indian mackerels were found to harbour a more significant microplastic load than finletted mackerels, highlighting the existence of inter-species variations in contamination levels. To confirm the presence of polymers, the identified microplastics underwent Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis, a method that verified the molecular composition of micro plastics by analysing their infrared absorption spectra. Overall, these findings shed light on the prevalence of microplastic pollution in aquatic ecosystems and underscore the necessity for comprehensive strategies to mitigate its far-reaching repercussions.

Keywords: Microplastics, skin, gill, mackerels, marine ecosystem


How to Cite

Athiramol P. S., Thomas, S., & Jacob, A. M. (2024). Microplastic Contamination in Indian Mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and Finletted Mackerel (Megalaspis cordyla): Exploring Occurrence and Variability in Skin and Gill Tissues. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(3), 71–79. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i33876

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Smith JA. Microplastics in Environmental Science: A Comprehensive Review. Environmental Science and Technology. 2020;44(7):123-135.

Gola D, Tyagi PK, Arya A, Chauhan N, Agarwal M, Singh SK, Gola S. The impact of microplastics on the marine environment: A review. ScienceDirect; 2021 Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2021.100552.

Harikrishnan T, Janardhanan M. Identification, interaction, and detection of microplastics on fish scale (Lutjanus gibbus). Environmental Pollution. 2023; 271:116345.

Harikrishnan T, Janardhanan M, Sivakumar P, Sivakumar R, Muthusamy G, Singaram G. Microplastic Contamination in commercial fish species in the southern coastal region of India. Elsevier. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere. 2022;137486.

Arthur C. Widespread distribution of microscopic plastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2009;60(12):2275- 2279.

Rochman CM. Anthropogenic debris in seafood: Plastic debris and fibers from textiles in fish and bivalves sold for human consumption. Scientific Reports. 2015;5: 14340.

Eerkes-Medrano D. Microplastics in freshwater systems: A review of the emerging threats, identification of knowledge gaps and prioritization of research needs. Water Research. 2015;75: 63-82.

Wright SL. The physical impacts of microplastics on marine organisms: A review. Environmental Pollution. 2013;178: 483-492.

Fadare OO, Okoffo ED. Covid-19 face masks: A potential source of microplastic fibers in the environment. The Science of the Total Environment. 2020;737:140279.

Kershaw PJ. Microplastic pollution of the Great Lakes and beyond: A state-of-the-science review. Journal of Great Lakes Research. 2019;45(1):1-12.

Lusher AL. Microplastics in Arctic polar waters: the first reported values of particles in surface and sub-surface samples. Science of the Total Environment. 2017; 580:955-967.

Galloway TS. Micro-and nano-plastics and human health. Marine anthropogenic litter. 2015;343-66.

Frank YA, Vorobiev ED, Babkina IB, Antsiferov DV, Vorobiev DS. Microplastics in fish gut, first records from the Tom River in West Siberia, Russia; 2020. Availablehttps://doi:10.17223/19988591/52/7.

Solomando A, Capó X, Alomar C, Compa M, Valencia JM, Sureda A. Assessment of the Effect of Long-Term Exposure to MPs and Depuration Period in Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758: Liver and Blood Biomarkers. Science of the Total Environment. 2021;786:147479 Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147479.

Arias AH, Ronda AC, Oliva AL, Marcovecchio JE. Evidence of microplastic ingestion by fish from the Bahía Blanca estuary in Argentina, South America. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 2019;102(6):750-6.

Eriksen M, Mason S, Wilson S, Box C, Zellers A, Edwards W, Farley H, Amato S. Microplastic pollution in the surface waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Marine pollution bulletin. 2013 Dec 15;77(1-2): 177-82.

Zhao S, Zhu L, Li D. Microplastic in three urban estuaries, China. Environmental pollution. 2015 Nov 1;206:597-604.

Desforges JPW, Galbraith M, Dangerfield N, Ross PS. Widespread distribution of microplastics in subsurface seawater in the NE Pacific Ocean. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2014;79(1-2):94-99.

Espinosa, C., Esteban, M. Á., Cuesta, A. Dietary administration of PVC and PE microplastics produces histological damage, oxidative stress and immunoregulation in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.). Fish & shellfish immunology, 2019;95, 574-583.

Jacob H, Besson M, Oberhaensli F, Taylor A, Gillet B, Hughes S, et al. A Multifaceted Assessment of the Effects of Polyethylene MPs on Juvenile Gilthead Seabreams (Sparus aurata). Aquatic Toxicology. 2021; 106004. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2021.106004

Naji A, Esmaili Z, Mason SA, Vethaak AD. The Occurrence of Microplastic Contamination in Littoral Sediments of the Persian Gulf, Iran. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017;24(25): 20360-20368.

Kor K, Mehdinia A. Microplastics in commercial fish species from the Persian Gulf. Environmental Pollution. 2020;262: 114279.

Sun J, Dai X, Wang Q, Van Loosdrecht MC, Ni BJ. Microplastics in wastewater treatment plants: Detection, occurrence and removal. Water research. 2019 ;152:21-37.

Hu, L., Chernick, M., Hinton, D. E., Shi, H. Microplastics in small waterbodies and tadpoles from Yangtze River Delta, China. Environmental science & technology, 2018; 52(15), 8885-8893.

Wu, F., Wang, Y., Leung, J. Y., Huang, W., Zeng, J., Tang, Y.,Cao, L. Accumulation of microplastics in typical commercial aquatic species: a case study at a productive aquaculture site in China. Science of the Total Environment, 2020;708, 135432.

Kor K, Mehdinia A. Neustonic Microplastic Pollution in the Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2020;150: 110665. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2019.110665.

Neves D, Sobral P, Ferreira JL, Pereira T. Ingestion of MPs by Commercial Fish off the Portuguese Coast. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 2015;101(1):119–126. Availablel:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.11.008.