Stem Cell and its Applications in Medical Biotechnology

Madhu Rani *

Department of Biotechnology, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, India and Department of Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, India.

Sweeti

Department of Biotechnology, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, India and Department of Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, India.

Spikey

Indian Institute of Technology, Gandhinagar, Gujarat- 382355, India.

Preeti Kaushik

Chaudhari Bansilal University, Bhiwani- 127021, India.

Deepak

Department of Mathematics, University Institute of Engineering and Technology, India and Department of Mathematics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, India.

Anjela Gahalayan

Govt. P.G College Sector-1, Panchkula- 134113, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells in multicellular organisms that can be specialized into many types of cells and multiply into different types of cells. Stem cells can be produced from many sources in the body such as early embryos, embryonic tissue, foetal membranes i e; chorion and amnion, umbilical cord, and amniotic fluid. Stem cells are also present in organs of adult organisms like blood, skin, skeletal muscle, bone marrow, etc., Stem cells can be totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, and unipotent. Stem cells are used to regenerate injured cells in the body, and repair the cells due to any kind of disease. From all types of cells, totipotent stem cells can generate any kind of cells in the body so they are the most important type of cells. Along with this, pluripotent stem cells also produce all types of cells, except the placenta or embryonic cells. These cells can be isolated from the body from the late embryonic stage after 1 week of the birth of a child, from the miscarriage of 12 weeks, and also from the umbilical cord of the child. These can be stored for another 2 decades. Another type is multipotent stem cells, which can generate a limited number of cells in a specific type; the last fourth type is unipotent stem cells, which can only produce cells of their own type. Diagnosis with stem cells is a useful technique to treat patients with many blood-related diseases for example blood cancer, thalassemia, etc., It also cures diseases like diabetes, liver disease, bone and cartilage, and organ transplantation.

Keywords: Stem cell, totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent, regenerative medicine


How to Cite

Rani , M., Sweeti, Spikey, Kaushik , P., Deepak, & Gahalayan , A. (2024). Stem Cell and its Applications in Medical Biotechnology. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(8), 143–157. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i84008

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