A Review on HR-HPV: An Increasing Cause of Concern for Cervical Carcinoma

Karuna Katiyar *

Department of Microbiology, IIMSR, Integral University, Lucknow, India.

Noor Jahan

Department of Microbiology, IIMSR, Integral University, Lucknow, India.

Ghayas Uddin

Department of Allied Health Sciences, Integral University, Lucknow, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Human Papilloma virus, leads to widely prevalent viral infection with worldwide distribution of variable genotypes, it is the major cause of cancer in women and a leading cause of deaths due to cancer in India. Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the most common cancer cause of death in the developing countries. Notably, four out of every five cases of cervical cancer reported in India were attributed to infections from HPV types 16 and 18. India has a population of 483.5 million women aged 15 years and older who are at risk of developing cervical cancer. Infections with high-risk HPV types impair the function of cellular proteins and interfere with the expression of biological gene products. In high-grade intraepithelial neoplasias and cancers, HPV DNA is typically integrated into the host genome. WHO has recommended Screening of cervical cancer among young sexually-active females for early detection of HPV induced cervical carcinoma. Detection of HPV at earlier stages is essential in prevention of invasive cervical carcinoma. Based on clinical stage categories upon diagnosis, standard of care for cervical cancer management includes surgery, radiation, systemic therapy, or a combination of these therapeutic modalities.

Keywords: HPV, cervical carcinoma, World Health Organization, neoplasia, radiation

How to Cite

Katiyar , K., Jahan, N., & Uddin, G. (2024). A Review on HR-HPV: An Increasing Cause of Concern for Cervical Carcinoma. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(10), 91–101. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i104053


Download data is not yet available.


Mishra R, Bisht D, Gupta M. Distribution and prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in women of western Uttar Pradesh, India: A hospital-based study. Journal of South Asian Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022;14(2):91–94 Available:https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10006-2013

Kaarthigeyan K. Cervical cancer in India and HPV vaccination. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol. 2012;33:7-12.

Kulkarni S P, Paliwal S, Kosta S. Genotypic diversity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types and its prevalence with cervical cancer (CC) in central India. Cureus. 2023;15(2):e35227 DOI:10.7759/cureus.35227

Thilagavathi Ramamoorthy et al. Epidemiology of human papillomavirus related cancers in India: Findings from the National Cancer Registry Programme, ecancer. 2022;16:1444.

Sharmila Chatterjee, Amit Chattopadhyay, Luna Samanta, Pinaki Panigrahi. HPV and Cervical Cancer Epidemiology - current Status of HPV Vaccination in India, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):3663-3673.

Kombe Kombe et al. HPV-Related Diseases: Preventative Strategies Assessment, Frontiers in Public Health. January 2021;8:13-19. Article 552028

Hossein Ashrafi G, Nadia Aziz Salman. Pathogenesis of Human Papillomavirus – Immunological Responses to HPV Infection; 2016 Available:http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/63965

Eileen M. Burd, henry ford hospital, Detroit, Michigan, human papillomavirus and cervical cancer, Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2003;16(1):1–17.

Sharmila Chatterjee, Amit Chattopadhyay, Luna Samanta, Pinaki Panigrahi. HPV and Cervical Cancer Epidemiology - current Status of HPV Vaccination in India, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2016;17(8):3663-3673.

Human Papillomavirus and Related Cancers, Fact Sheet. ICO/IARC Information Centre on HPV and Cancer; 2021.

Aswathy Sreedevi, Reshma Javed, Avani Dinesh. Epidemiology of cervical cancer with special focus on India. International Journal of Women’s Health. 2015;7:405–414.

Kapoor CS, Sharma M. Prevalence of HPV infection in reproductive aged female in Delhi NCR region. Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health. 2020;8:612–615.

Kashyap N, Krishnan N, Kaur S, Ghai S. Risk factors of cervical cancer: A case-control study. Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing. 2019;6(3):308–314 Available:https://doi.org/10.4103/apjon.apjon_73_18

Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters, Eric Adjei Boakye, Rebecca L. Rohde, Rajan N Ganesh, Ammar S Moiyadi, Adnan S Hussaini, Mark A. Varvares, Understanding of risk factors for the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection based on gender and race, Scientific Reports. 2019;9:297.

Available:https://www.cancer.gov/types/cervical/causes-risk-prevention, Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention, National Cancer Institute

Kehinde Sharafadeen Okunadej, Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer, Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;40(5):602–608. DOI: 10.1080/01443615.2019.1634030

Eileen M. Burd, Human Papillomavirus and Cervical Cancer. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2003;16(1):1–17.

Ssedyabane F, Amnia DA, Mayanja R, Omonigho A, Ssuuna C, Najjuma JN, Freddie B. HPV-chlamydial coinfection, prevalence, and association with cervical intraepithelial lesions: A pilot study at mbarara regional referral hospital. Journal of Cancer Epidemiology; 2019 Available:https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/9092565

Elissa Meites MD, Julianne Gee MPH, Elizabeth Unger MPH, Lauri Markowitz, MD. Human Papillomavirus, Center for Disease control; 2015.

Consensus Document for the Management of Cancer Cervix, ICMR, New Delhi; 2016.

Gregory Juckett, MD, Holly Hartman-Adams. West Virginia University Robert C. Byrd Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, Human Papillomavirus: Clinical Manifestations and Prevention, American Family Physician. 2010;8(10):1210 -1214.

Nigar A. Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and screening methods among women attending a tertiary hospital in Lucknow, India. International Journal of Reproduction, Contraception, Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2017;6(12):5592. Available:https://doi.org/10.18203/2320-1770.ijrcog20175287

Cervical Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, NCI; 2023.

New recommendations for screening and treatment to prevent cervical cancer, WHO Guidelines News Room; 2021.

Pesona Grace Lucksom et al, Advances in HPV Screening Tests for Cervical Cancer—A Review, The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India. 2022;72(1):13–18.

Ansari IA, Ahmad A, Imran MA, Saeed M, Ahmad I. Organosulphur compounds induce apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in cervical cancer cells via downregulation of HPV e6 and e7 oncogenes. Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 2020; 21(3):393–405 Available:https://doi.org/10.2174/1871520620999200818154456

Ahmad A, Tiwari RK, Mishra P, Alkhathami AG, Almeleebia TM, Alshahrani MY, Ahmad I, Asiri RA, Alabdullah NM, Hussien M, Saeed M, Ansari IA. Antiproliferative and apoptotic potential of Glycyrrhizin against HPV16+ Caski cervical cancer cells: A plausible association with downreguation of HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes and Notch signaling pathway. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2022;29(5):3264–3275. Available:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2022.01.054

Vargas-Cardona HD, Rodriguez-Lopez M, Arrivillaga M, Vergara-Sanchez C, García-Cifuentes JP, Bermúdez PC, Jaramillo-Botero A. Artificial intelligence for cervical cancer screening: Scoping review, 2009–2022. In International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics. John Wiley and Sons Ltd; 2023 Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.15179

Viñals R, Jonnalagedda M, Petignat P, Thiran JP, Vassilakos P. Artificial Intelligence-Based Cervical Cancer Screening on Images Taken during Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid: A Systematic Review. In Diagnostics. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). 2023;13(5) Available:https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics13050836

Hou X, Shen G, Zhou L, Li Y, Wang T, Ma X. Artificial intelligence in cervical cancer screening and diagnosis. In frontiers in oncology. Frontiers Media S.A. 2022;12. Available:https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.851367

Pathania D, Landeros C, Rohrer L, D'Agostino V, Hong S, Degani I, et al. Point-of-Care Cervical Cancer Screening Using Deep Learning-Based Micro-holography. Theranostics. 2019;9(26): 8438–47 DOI: 10.7150/ thno.37187

Tian R, Cui Z, He D, Tian X, Gao Q, Ma X, et al. Risk Stratification of Cervical Lesions Using Capture Sequencing and Machine Learning Method Based on HPV and Human Integrated Genomic Profiles. Carcinogenesis. 2019;40(10):1220–8 DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgz094

De Felice F, Marchetti C, Fagotti A, Scambia G. Immunotherapy in cervical cancer: The advent of precision medicine. Annals of Translational Medicine. 2020; 8(12):773–773 Available:https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.02.153

Manrriquez EN, Zakhour M, Salani R. Precision medicine for cervical cancer. In Current Opinion in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 2022;34(1):1–5 Available:https://doi.org/10.1097/GCO.0000000000000755

Sherer MV, Kotha NV, Williamson C, Mayadev J. Advances in immunotherapy for cervical cancer: Recent developments and future directions. In International Journal of Gynecological Cancer. BMJ Publishing Group. 2022;32(3):281– 287. Available:https://doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2021-002492

Vikraman SM, Khanna D, Dandpat, A. Cervical cancer elimination in Indian context: Moving from barriers to facilitators. In Cancer. John Wiley and Sons Inc. 2022; 128(23):4041–4046 Available:https://doi.org/10.1002/cncr. 34486

Bhatla N, Meena J, Kumari S, Banerjee D, Singh P, Natarajan J. Cervical Cancer Prevention Efforts in India. In Indian Journal of Gynecologic Oncology. Springer. 2021;19(3) Available:https://doi.org/10.1007/s40944-021-00526-8