Bacteriological Analyses of Fish Mucus from Fish Market with Reference to Consumer’s Health

Niharika P. Shah *

Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, India.

N. C. Ujjania

Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, India.

Yash H. Mer

Department of Aquatic Biology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, Gujarat, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


A study was conducted to evaluate the bacteria load present in fish mucus collected from Nanpura wholesale fish market during the period from 30th December 2022 to 20th February 2023. Total 20 fish mucus samples were determined by Total Plate Count (TPC) and identification of bacteria. High bacterial load with pathogens such as Escherichia coli (Gram negative bacteria) and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive bacteria) were found in all fresh and marine fish samples from study area. These pathogens can survive and multiply in fish, transferred into consumer by way of food and main source of fish poisoning, diarrhoea, meningitis and septicemia which cause health risk to consumer. The fishes were contaminated with pathogenic bacteria indicated poor handling of fishes, lack of preservation facility and unhygienic condition of study area. Thus, it is strongly recommended to improve the quality control and quality assurance systems of the study area to minimize the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria.

Keywords: Wholesale fish market, total plate count, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Septicemia

How to Cite

Shah , N. P., Ujjania , N. C., & Mer , Y. H. (2024). Bacteriological Analyses of Fish Mucus from Fish Market with Reference to Consumer’s Health. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(11), 148–156.


Download data is not yet available.


Hoyle NT, Merritt JH. Quality of fish protein hydrolysates from herring (Clupea harengus). Journal of Food Science. 1994; 59(1):76-79.

Chourey P, Meena D, Varma A, Saxena G. Fish marketing system in bhopal (M.P.). Biological Forum -An International Journal. 2014;6(1):19-21.

Ikutegbe V, Sikoki F. Microbiological and biochemical spoilage of smoke-dried fishes sold in West African open markets. Food Chemistry. 2014;161:332-336.

Oluwaniyi OO, Dorsum OO. Preliminary studies on the effect of processing methods on the quality of three commonly consumed marine fishes in Nigeria. Biochemistry. 2009;21(1):1-7.

Naeem N, Ahmad S, Siddiqi S, Hassan M. Microbial quality of fresh and frozen fish from markets of Lahore. LGU Journal of Life Sciences. 2017;1(3):144-150.

Shammi QJ, Bhatnagar S. Applied fisheries. Agrobios, Jodhpur, Rajasthan. 2002;191.

Gadhia M, Shah N. Study on Wholesale Fish Market of Surat, Gujarat. International Journal of Scientific Research. 2013;2(12): 47-48.

Asogwa VC, Asogwa JN. Marketing of fish products. Journal of Aquaculture and Marine Biology. 2019;8(2):55-61.

Rani M, Chelladurai G, Jayanthi G. Isolation and identification of bacteria from marine market fish Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Parasitic Diseases. 2016;40(3):1062-1065.

International Commission for Microbiological Specification for Foods. Microorganisms in foods 6. Blackie Academic, London; 1998.

Yagoub SO. Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. from raw fish sold in fish market in Khartoum state. Journal of Bacteriology Research. 2009;1(7):85-88.

Kawser A, Abu HMY, Sabina Y, Nazmul A, Mujibur R, Monirul, I. Prevalence of Microbial load in Shrimp, Penaeus monodon and Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii from Bangladesh. World Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 2008;4(3): 852-855.

Stephen C, Artsob H, Bowie WR, Drebot M, Fraser E, Leighton T, Morshed M, Ong C, Patrick D. Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. 2004;15(6):339–344.

Das A, Kumar NR, Debnath B, Choudhury TG, Mugaonkar PH. Adoption of hygienic practices in fish markets of Tripura. Fishery Technology. 2013;50(3):272-276.

Das M, Hafiz F, Ahmed MK, Parveen S. Microbiological Analysis of Some Raw Fish Samples. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology. 2008;24(1):67–69.

Dash S, Das SK, Samal J, Thatoi HN. Epidermal mucus, A major determinant in fish health:a review. Iranian Journal of Veterinary research. 2018;19(2):72-81.

Chong K, Joshi S, Jin LT, Shu-Chien AC. Proteomics profiling of epidermal mucus secretion of a cichlid (Symphysodon aequifasciata) demonstrating parental care behavior. Proteomics. 2006;6(7):2251–2258.

Fuochi V, Li Volti G, Camiolo G, Tiralongo F, Giallongo C, Distefano A, Petronio G, Barbagallo I, Viola M, Furneri PM, Di Rosa M, Avola R, Tibullo D. Antimicrobial and Anti-Proliferative Effects of Skin Mucus Derived from Dasyatis pastinaca (Linnaeus, 1758). Marine Drugs. 2017;15 (11):342.

Jurado J, Fuentes-Almagro CA, Guardiola FA, Cuesta A, Esteban MA, Prieto-Álamo MJ. Proteomic profile of the skin mucus of farmed gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Journal of Proteomics. 2015;120:21–34.

Fikre D, Abdulahi SM, Hamid M, Abdula JA. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile of salmonella fish harvested from Haramaya Lake, Eastern Ethiopia. Acta Scientific Veterinary Sciences. 2022;4(5):4-13.

Nur IT, Ghosh BK, Acharjee M. Comparative microbiological analysis of raw fishes and sun-dried fishes collected from the Kawran bazaar in Dhaka city, Bangla. Food Research. 2020;4(3):846-851.

Cardozo MV, Borges CA, Beraldo LG, Maluta RP, Pollo AS, Borzi MM, Dos Santos LF, Kariyawasam S, Avila FA. Shigatoxigenic and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in fish for human consumption. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2018;49(4):936–941.

Price RG, Wildeboer D. E. coli as an indicator of contamination and health risk in environmental waters, In: Escherichia coli - Recent Advances on Physiology, Pathogenesis and Biotechnological Applications. Intech. 2017;125-139.

Ayuba VO, Alhassan MI, Jimmy UU. Assessment of the microbial load of smoked sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum, 1792) sold in Makurdi markets. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2013;2(9):277-287.

Painter JA, Hoekstra RM, Ayers T, Tauxe RV, Braden CR, Angulo FJ, Griffin PM. Attribution of foodborne illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths to food commodities by using outbreak data, United States, 1998-2008. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2013;19(3):407-415.

Chong K, Ying TS, Foou J, Jin LT, Chong A. Characterization of proteins in epidermal mucus of Discus fish (Symphosodon spp.) during parental phase. Aquaculture. 2005;249:469-476.

Surendran PK, Thampuran N, Nambiar VN, Lalitha KV. Laboratory manual of microbiological examination of seafood. Central institute of fisheries technology, Cochin. 2008; pp. 11-16, 38.

APHA. Standard method for examination of water and waste water (19th ed.). American public health association, New York. 1995;9-35.

Patel RJ, Patel KR. Experimental microbiology. Aditya, Ahemdabad, India. 2000;2:2-3.

Cheesbrough M. District laboratory practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University Press, USA, 2002;45-70.

Cappuccino JG, Sherman N. Microbiology (6th ed.). Pearson education Pvt. Ltd., Indian branch, Delhi, India. 2005;137-214.

Pal M. Fish hygiene. M.Sc Lecture Notes. Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. 2010;1-11.

Pal M. Food spoilage. Ph.D. Lecture Notes. Addis Ababa University, College of Veterinary Medicine, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. 2012;1-8.

Arasu A, Kumaresan V, Sathyamoorthi A, Palanisamy R, Prabha N, Bhatt P, Roy A, Thirumalai MK, Gnanam AJ, Pasupuleti M, Marimuthu K, Arockiaraj J. Fish lily type lectin-1 contains β-prism 2 architecture: immunological characterization. Molecular Immunology. 2013;56:497-506.

Arockiaraj J, Gnanam AJ, Dhanaraj M, Ranganath G, Milton J, Singh A, Saravanan M, Marimuthu K, Crustin SB. a WAP domain containing antimicrobial peptide from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii: immune characterization. Fish Shellfish Immunology. 2012; 34:109-118.

Arockiaraj J, Kumaresan V, Bhatt P, Palanisamy R, Gnanam AJ, Pasupuleti M, Kasi M, Chaurasia MK. A novel single-domain peptide; anti-LPS factor from prawn: synthesis of peptide; antimicrobial properties and complete molecular characterization. Peptides. 2014;53:79-88.

Dash S, Swain P, Swain MM, Nayak SK, Behura A, Nanda PK, Mishra BK. Investigation on infectious dropsy of Indian major carps. Asian Fisheries Science. 2008;21:377-384.

Ingram GI. Substances involved in the natural resistance of fish to infection-a review. Journal of Fish Biology. 1980;16: 23-60.

Mandalm SC, Hassan M, Rhman MS, Manik MH, Zahid HM, Sirajul Islam MD. World Journal of fish and Marine science, 2009;3:160-166.

Dutta C, Saha D, Panigrahi A, Sengupta C. The occurrence of Escherichia coli in fish samples isolated from different ponds of Nadia District, West Bengal, India. Journal of Food Safety, 2010;12:181-186.

Kim SH, Field KG, Chang DS, Wei CI. Identification of bacteria crucial to histamine accumulation in Pacific mackerel during storage. Journal of Food Protection. 2001;64:1556-1564.

Cemek M, Akkaya L, Bulut S, Konuk M, Birdane YO. Histamine, nitrate and nitrite content of meat products marketed in Western Anatolia, Turkey. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. 2006;5:1109-1112.

Ananthanarayan R, Paniker J. Textbook of microbiology. Universities press Pvt. Ltd., 2009; pp. 279.

Ampofo JA, Clerk GC. Diversity of bacteria contaminants in tissues of fish cultured in organic waste fertilized ponds: Health implications. The Open Fish Science Journal. 2010; 3:142-146.

Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Magaji AA, Falekle OO, Yusuf Y, Abubakar MB. Samaila S. Bacteriological quality of freshwater fishes caught from Sokoto River, Sokoto, Nigeria. Journal of Veterinary Advances. 2012;2(1):65-69.

Odu NN, Imaku LN. Assessment of the microbiological quality of street-vended ready-to-eat bole (roasted plantain) fish (Trachurus trachurus) in Port Harcourt metropolis, Nigeria. Researcher. 2013;5 (3):9-18.

Garba AA, Ochogwu J, Usman B, Adadu MO. Assessment of the extent of microbial load of smoked dried African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sold in Maiduguri markets. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2021;9(3):278- 287.