Assessment of Biofilm Production and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Al-Qadisiyah Hospitals, Iraq

Hayder Ali Muhammed *

Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicicne, University of Kerbala, Iraq.

Hasnaa Saeed Mohsin Al-Mosawi

Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicicne, University of Kerbala, Iraq.

Faten Aabed-Alkadhem Khalaf Aldawmy

Department of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicicne, University of Kerbala, Iraq.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most common causative agents of nosocomial infections. Opportunistic pathogens can generate a thick layer of biofilm as an important virulence factor.

Objectives: The current study was aimed in the detection of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenic capability as a common opportunistic pathogen accounting pneumonia, urinary tract infections, with in nosocomial infections.

Materials and Methods: In this observational study, a total of 140 clinical samples obtained from patients with bacterial infections were analyzed. The identification of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates was performed using selective culture media and biochemical tests. Additionally, biofilm strains were characterized using the Crystal Violet assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.

Results: Among the 140 samples collected from various specimens, a total of 100 isolates (43.47%) were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae culturing and biochemical tests. Out of these isolates, 58 (58%) were obtained from male individuals, while 42 (42%) were obtained from female individuals. Using the phenotypic method, the analysis revealed that 18% isolates were classified as strong biofilm producers, 33% as medium biofilm producers, 49% as weak biofilm producers, and 30 as non-biofilm producers. The frequency of specific genes in the isolates was reported as follows: wzm (47%) and markA (69%).

Conclusion: The presence of the markA gene is significant in the context of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae strains, as it serves as a marker for distinguishing various types of biofilms.

Keywords: Klebsiella pneumonia, biofilm formation, PCR

How to Cite

Muhammed, H. A., Al-Mosawi, H. S. M., & Aldawmy, F. A.-A. K. (2024). Assessment of Biofilm Production and Antibiotic Sensitivity Patterns in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Al-Qadisiyah Hospitals, Iraq. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(11), 247–255.


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