The Role of Biodegrading-bacteria to Remove Bisphenol-A from Polluted Soils

Fatima Shehab Hamad

Public Health Department, College of Veterinary Medicine- University of Kerbala, Iraq.

Juman Khaleel Al-Sabbagh *

Microbiology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine- University of Kerbala, Iraq.

Kadhim Saleh Kadhim

Public Health Department, College of Veterinary Medicine- University of Kerbala, Iraq.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Background: Bisphenol A (BPA), is an organic component, functions as an endocrine disruptor (EDC). It ubiquitously exists in both, the environment and the food sources, leading to continuous and unintentional exposure among populations of human and animal.

Aim of the Study: Investigate biodegradation activity of BPA by bacteria isolated from polluted soil with plastic wastes.

Materials and Methods: 50 samples were taken from polluted soil with plastic wastes of different sites in Kerbala province; minimal salt media (MSM) were used to identify the capability of the isolates to bioremediate 200 mg/L, as a final concentration of BPA by using HPLC analysis.

Results: the bacterial isolates could degrade the BPA in different ranges started from 18.7% to 99.9%. the recent study found that, Serratia plymuthica, Pantoea spp, Shingomonas paucimobilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus spp. were more efficient in BPA biodegradation than Acinetobacter haemolyticus, Acinetobacter lwoffii, Escherichia coli and Proteus spp.

Conclusion: Many types of bacterial isolates could convert the toxic organic compound Bisphenol A to another metabolites and according to recent study we could employee these activity to eliminate these materials safely from the polluted soils and water efficiently than using chemicals that might be toxic to environment, human being and animals.

Keywords: BPA, biodegradation, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, HPLC, minimal salt media, estrogen-mimic

How to Cite

Hamad, F. S., Al-Sabbagh, J. K., & Kadhim, K. S. (2024). The Role of Biodegrading-bacteria to Remove Bisphenol-A from Polluted Soils. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(12), 114–124.


Download data is not yet available.


Metz CM. Bisphenol A: understanding the controversy. Workplace Health Saf. 2016;64:28-36. Available:

Yang L, Chen Y, Shen Y, Yang M, Li X, Han X, Jiang X, Zhao B. SERS strategy based on the modified Au nanoparticles for highly sensitive detection of bisphenol A residues in milk. Talanta. 2018;179:37-42. Available:

Ramakrishna MG, Girigoswami A, Chakraborty S, Girigoswami K. Bisphenol a-an overview on its effect on health and environment. Biointerface Research in Applied Chemistry. 2022;12(1):105-119. Available:

Kadhim TA, Al Sa’ady AT, Khayoon HA, Hameed DM, Hussain SS, Kareem AS, et al. The bacterial contamination in the burn unit of Al-Hussain Teaching Hospital at Al-Samawa City, Iraq. Med J Babylon 2023;20:357-61.

Crain DA, Eriksen M, Iguchi T, Jobling S, Laufer H, LeBlanc GA, Guillette Jr LJ. An ecological assessment of bisphenol-A: evidence from comparative biology. Reprod. Toxicol. 2007;24:225-239. Available:

Molina-López AM, Bujalance-Reyes F, Ayala-Soldado N, Mora-Medina R, Lora-Benítez A, Moyano-Salvago R. An overview of the health effects of bisphenol a from a one health perspective. Animals. 2023;13(15):2439. Available:

Badiefar L, Yakhchali B, Rodriguez-Couto S, Veloso A, Garcia-Arenzana JM, Yoshinobu Matsumuraf Y, Khodabandeh M. Biodegradation of bisphenol A by the newlyisolated Enterobacter gergoviae strain BYK-7 enhanced using genetic manipulation. RSC Adv. 2015;5:29563–29572. DOI: 10.1039/C5RA01818H

Mohammed BA, Al-Saaidi JA. Effect of experimentally induced prepubertal hyperthyroidism on postubertal reproductive activity in male rats. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2023;37:1:297-304. DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133976.2325

Landahur R, Santoso B, Widjiati W, Luqman EM. The endometrial expression level of estrogen-α and VEGF-A in female rats administered with a low dose of estrogen in early clomiphene citrate therapy. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 2023;37;1:223-228. DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.133333.2207

Mari ZM, Smaism MF, Al-Hilli NM. Effect of obesity on androgen receptor and androgen levels in the serum of women with infertility in Babylon, Iraq. Med J Babylon. 2023;20:433-6.

Kareem SI, Hussein RH, Rasheed RO. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio) and its relationship with the protein content. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2022;36; Supplement I:173-178. DOI: 10.33899/ijvs.2022.135834.2531

Catenza CJ, Farooq A, Shubear NS, Donkor KK. A targeted review on fate, occurrence, risk and health implications of bisphenol analogues. Chemosphere. 2021;268:129273. Available:

Behayaa HR, Juda TM, Mohammed SB. The effect of androgen hormones in acne pathogenesis: A review. Med J Babylon. 2022;19:345-9

Kamaraj M, Sivaraj R, Venckatesh R. Biodegradation of Bisphenol A by the tolerant bacterial species isolated from coastal regions of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad. 2014;93:216-222. Available:

Jaafar RS. Bioremediation of lead and cadmium and the strive role of Pediococcus pentosaceus probiotic. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences. 2020, 34;1:51-57.

Saiyood S, Vangnai A, Thiravetyan P, Inthorn D. Bisphenol A removal by the Dracaena plant and the role of plant-associating bacteria. J. Hazard. Mater. 2010;178:777–785.

Eltoukhy A, Jia Y, Nahurira R, et al. Biodegradation of endocrine disruptor Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas putida strain YC-AE1 isolated from polluted soil, Guangdong, China. BMC Microbiol. 2020;20:1–14. Available:

Noszczyńska M, Piotrowska-Seget Z. Bisphenols: Application, occurrence, safety, and biodegradation mediated by bacterial communities in wastewater treatment plants and rivers. Chemosphere. 2018;201:214–223. Available:

Satti SM. Biodegradation of poly (lactic acid) in soil microcosms at ambient temperature: Evaluation of natural attenuation, bio-augmentation and bio-stimulation. Journal of Polymers and the Environment. 2018;1-10.

Ren L, Jia Y, Ruth N, Shi Y, Wang J, Qiao C, et al. Biotransformations of bisphenols mediated by a novel Arthrobacter sp. strain YC-RL1. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2016;100:1967–76.

Eltoukhy A, Jia Y, Lamraoui I, Abo Kadoum MA, Atta OM, Nahurira R, Junhuan Wang J, Yan Y. Transcriptome analysis and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase reveal the molecular mechanism of Bisphenol A degradation by Pseudomonas putida strain YC-AE1. BMC Microbiology. 2022;22:294. Available:

Louati I, Dammak M, Nasri R, Belbahri L, Nasri M, Abdelkaf S, Mechichi T. Biodegradation and detoxification of bisphenol A by bacteria isolated from desert soils. 3 Biotech. 2019;9:228.

Jia Y, Eltoukhy A, Wang J, Li X, Hlaing TS, Aung MM , Nwe MT, Lamraoui I, Yan Y. Biodegradation of Bisphenol A by Sphingobium sp. YC-JY1 and the Essential Role of Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020;21:3588. DOI: 10.3390/ijms21103588

Inoue D, Hara S, kahinhara M, Murai Y, Danzyl E, Sei K, et al. Degradation of bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) methane bisphenol f by sphinogibum yaboikuyae strain fm2 isolated from river. Water and Applied Environmental Microbiology. 2008;74(2): 352-358.

Vijayalakshmi V, Senthilkumar P, Mophin-Kani K , Sivamani S , Sivarajasekar N, Vasantharaj S. Bio-degradation of Bisphenol A by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAb1 isolated from effluent of thermal paper industry: Kinetic modeling and process optimization. Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences, 2018;11:56-65.

Neisia A, Rahmanib AR , Ghafaric S, Jorfia S, Almasi H. Biodegradation of Bisphenol A in a saline industrial wastewater using Alcaligenes faecalis strain BPAN5. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2020;189:276–282.

Zhang C, Zeng G, Yuan L, Yu J, Li J, Huang G, Xi B, Liu H. Aerobic degradation of bisphenol A by Achromobacter xylosoxidans strain B-16 isolated from compost leachate of municipal solid waste. Chemosphere. 2007;68:181-190.

Das R, Liang Z, Li G, Mai B, An T. Genome sequence of a spore-laccase forming, BPA-degrading Bacillus sp. GZB isolated from an electronic-waste recycling site reveals insights into BPA degradation pathways. Archives of Microbiology; 2019. Available:

Farias JM, Krepsky N. Bacterial degradation of bisphenol A and its analogues: An overview. Research square; 2022. Available:

Usman A, Ikhlas S, Ahmad M. Occurrence, toxicity and endocrine disrupting potential of Bisphenol-B and Bisphenol-F: A mini-review. Toxicol Lett. 2019;312:222–227. Available:

Satti SM, Shah AA, Auras R, Marsh TL. Genome annotation of Poly(lactic acid) degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Sphingobacterium sp. bioRxiv. 2019.

Yu K, Yi S,† , Li B, Guo F,5, Peng X, Wang Z, Wu Y , Alvarez-Cohen L, Zhang T. An integrated meta-omics approach reveals substrates involved in synergistic interactions in a bisphenol A (BPA)- degrading microbial community. Microbiome. 2019;7:16. Available:

Yue W, Yin C, Sun L, Zhang J, Xu Y, Zhou N. Biodegradation of bisphenol-A polycarbonate plastic by Pseudoxanthomonas sp. strain NyZ600. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2021;416:125775. Available:

Zhang W, Yin K, Chen L. Bacteria-mediated bisphenol A degradation. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013;97:5681-5689. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-4949-z

Park YK and Chin Y-W. Degradation of Bisphenol A by Bacillus subtilis P74 Isolated from Traditional Fermented Soybean Foods. Microorganisms 2023; 11(9):2132. Available:

Noszczyn´ska M, Chodo´r M, Jałowiecki L, Piotrowska-Seget Z, A comprehensive study on bisphenol A degradation by newly isolated strains Acinetobacter sp. K1MN and Pseudomonas sp. BG12. Biodegradation. 2021;32:1-15. Available:

Go´rny D, Guzik U, Hupert-Kocurek K, Wojcieszyn´ska D. Naproxen ecotoxicity and biodegradation by Bacillus thuringiensis B1(2015b) strain. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2019;167:505–512. Available:

Hou S and Yang P. BPA biodegradation driven by isolated strain SQ-2 and its metabolism mechanism elucidation. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 2022;185:108540.

Tian K, Yu Y, Qiu Q, Sun X, Meng F, Bi Y, Gu J, Wang Y, Zhang F, Huo H. Mechanisms of BPA degradation and toxicity resistance in rhodococcus equi. Microorganisms. 2023;11(1):67.

McDonough CM, Xu HS, Guo TL. Toxicity of bisphenol analogues on the reproductive, nervous, and immune systems, and their relationships to gut microbiome and metabolism: Insights from a multi-species comparison. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2021;51:283–300.

Han Y, Dai H, Rong X, Jiang H and Xue Y. Research progressof methods for degradation of bisphenol A. Molecules. 2023;28:8028. Available:

Li S, Tian K, Qiu Q, Yu Y, Li H, Chang M, Sun X, Gu J, Zhang F, Wang Y and Huo H. Study on Genomics of the Bisphenol A-Degrading Bacterium Pseudomonas sp. P1. Water. 2023;15(4):830. Available:

Zhu Y, Xie Q, Ye J, Wang R, Yin X, Xie W and Li D. Metabolic Mechanism of Bacillus sp.LM24 under Abamectin Stress. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 2023;20:3068. Available:

Xiao C, Wang L, Zhou Q, Huang X. Hazards of bisphenol A (BPA) exposure: A systematic review of plant toxicology studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2020;384(15): 121488.

Koh LM, Khor SM. Biodegradation Process: Basics, Factors Affecting, and Industrial Applications. Biodegradation Process: Basics, Factors Affecting, and Industrial Applications. In: Ali GAM, Makhlouf ASH. (eds) Handbook of Biodegradable Materials. Springer, Cham; 2022. Available: