Diversity and Abundance of Butterfly Species Complex in Two Diverse Habitats of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, India

Pushplata Dawar *

Department of Entomology, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Moni Thomas

Institute of Agri-Business Management, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Akhil Nair

Zoological Survey of India, Jabalpur, India.

Sheela Ghosh

Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, India.

Rustam Ali

Department of Entomology, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Gourav Kumar Vani

Department of Economics, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Manish Bhan

Department of Meteorology, JNKVV, Jabalpur, India.

Niraj Tripathi

Directorate of Research Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Butterflies are important bio-indicators that should be protected to conserve the biodiversity and environment. They play an important role in the food chain and are valuable pollinators in the local environment. The present study investigated and compared the butterfly abundance and diversity within two different habitats (i) Undisturbed and (ii) Disturbed, in Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya Campus, Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh. A total of 24 butterfly species were recorded during the study from June 2022 to July 2023 using transects with the aid of sweep nets. An overall total of 2537 butterflies were recorded, which spread across 05 families 17 genera and 23 species. The most abundant family of butterflies caught in undisturbed ecosystems was Pieridae 38% followed by Nymphalidae 27%, Lycaenidae 14%, Papilionidae and Hesperiidae 7%. In disturbed ecosystems butterflies were distributed as Pieridae being dominated with 52% followed by Lycaenidae at 22%, Nymphalidae at 16%, Hesperiidae at 7% and Papilionidae at 3%. The undisturbed habitat was more diversified (H’-1.59) in butterfly diversity than the disturbed habitat (H’- 1.20).

Keywords: Lepidoptera, diversity, abundance, shannon index

How to Cite

Dawar, P., Thomas, M., Nair, A., Ghosh, S., Ali, R., Vani, G. K., Bhan, M., & Tripathi, N. (2024). Diversity and Abundance of Butterfly Species Complex in Two Diverse Habitats of Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya, India. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 45(12), 212–222. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2024/v45i124119


Download data is not yet available.


Ackery PR, Jong de R, Vane-Wright RI. The Butterflies: Hedyloidea, Hesperioidea and Papilionoidae. In: Kristensen; 1999.

Aiswarya VN, Pradarsika M, Soma AB. Studies on the diversity and abundance of butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) fauna in and around Sarojini Naidu College campus, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2014;2(4):129-133.

Akwashiki BA, Amuga GA, Mwansat, GS. Assessment of butterfly diversity in eagle owl gully of Amurum forest reserve, Jos East Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. The Zoologist. 2007;5:33–38.

Bashar MA, Abdullah-Al-Mamum M, Rahaman KM. Wing-venation as a factor for the identification of Pierid butterflies in the forests of Bangladesh. Journal of Zoology. 2005;33(1):49-56

Bensusan K, Nesbit R, Perez C, Tryjanowski P. Zduniak P. Species composition and dynamics in abundance of migrant and sedentary butterflies (Lepidoptera) at Gibraltar during the spring period. Europ J Entomol. 2014;111:10-14.

Bhagwat SA, Willis KJ, Birks HJB. Whittaker RJ. Agroforestry: A refuge for tropical biodiversity? Trends Ecol. Evol. 2008;23:261–267.

Bhardwaj M, Uniyal VP, Sanyal AK, Singh AP. Butterflies” communities along an elevation gradient in the Tons valley, Western Himalayas: implications of rapid assessment for insect conservation. Journal of Asia- Pacific Entomology. 2012;15:207-217.

Bingham CT. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma Butterflies. 1 (1st ed.). London: Taylor and Francis, Ltd; 1905.

Bonebrake T, Sorto R. Butterfly (papilionoidea and hespenoidea) rapid assessment of a coastal countryside in el-salvador. Tropical Conservation Science. 2009;2(1):34–51.

Bos MM, teffan-Dewenter I, Tscharntke T. The contribution of cacao agroforests to the conservation of lower canopy ant and beetle diversity in Indonesia. Biodivers. Conserv. 2007;16:2429–2444.

Braby MF. Provisional checklist of genera of the Pieridae (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa. 2005;832:1-16.

Brereton T, Roy DB, Middlebrook I, Botham M, Warren M. The development of butterfly indicators in the United Kingdom and assessments. Journal of Insect Conservation. 2010;5(1):2-9.

Brown Jr KS. Diversity, distance and sustainable use of Neotropical Forest: Insects as bioindications for conservation monitoring. Journal of Insects Conservation. 1997;1:25–42.

Carter David. Butterflies and Moths. Smithsonian Handbooks: Butterflies & Moths Paperback Import. 2000, 15 May;2002.

Chandra K, Chaudhary LK, Singh RK, Koshta ML. Butterflies of pench tiger reserve, Madhya Pradesh Zoological Survey of India. 2002;17(10): 908-909.

Chandra K, Singh RK, Koshta ML. On a collection of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) from Sidhi district, Madhya Pradesh, India. Records of Zoological Survey of India. 2000;98(4):11-23.

Chandra K, Singh RK, Koshta ML. On a collection of butterflies fauna from Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve. Proceedings of National Seminar on Biodiversity Conservation & Management with Special Reference on Biosphere Reserve, EPCO, Bhopal November. 2000;72-77.

Chaudhary LK, Khan SK. Bandhavgarh Fort of the Tiger: The Definitive Guide. Sandhya Prakashan Bhavan, Malviya Nagar, Bhopal. 2002;113.

Connor ORJ, Shrubb M. Farming and Birds. Corbet AS and Pendlebury HM. The Butterflies of The Malay Peninsula. Malayan Nature Society. 4th Edition.1986;1-61.

De Vries PJ, Levin SA. The Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity. Academic Press; 2001.

Devi NL, Das AK. Diversity and utilization of tree species in Meitei home gardens of Barak valley, Assam,” Journal of Environmental Biology. 2013;34:211–217

Ehrlich PR. Butterflies, test systems, and biodiversity Butterflies: Ecology and Evolution Taking Flight. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2002;1–6.

Elsaied A. Habitat diversity and plant indicators of ElHarra Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. Int. J. Adv. Res. Biol. Sci. 2017;4(5).

Gamage A, Gangahagedara R, Gamage J, Jayasinghe N, Kodikara N, Suraweera P, Merah O. Role of organic farming for achieving sustainability in agriculture. Farming System. 2023; 1100005.

Gautam S, Kunte K. Adaptive plasticity in wing melanization of a montane butterfly across a Himalayan elevational gradient. Ecological Entomology. 2020;45(6):1272–1283.

Ghazanfar M, Malik MF, Hussain M, Iqbal R, Younas M. Butterflies and their contributions in ecosystem: A review. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies. 2016;4(2):115-118.

Gupta Shukla. Precis iphita Pluviatilis Rec. Zool.Surv. India, Occ. 1987;106:32.

Hassan SA. Butterflies of Islamabad and Murree Hills. Asian Study Group, Islamabad, Pakistan. 1994;1-68.

Hill JK, Kramer KC, Lace LA. Effects of selective logging on tropical forest butterflies on Buru, Junonia swinhoei Butler.1882. Ann. Magnat. Hist. 1995;16(5):309.

Hunter MD. Effects of plant quality on the population ecology of parasitoids. Agric. Forest Ent. 5 (1),1–8 Indonesia. Journal of Applied Ecology. 2003.32:754–760.

Kemabonta KA, Ebiyon AS, Olaleru F. The butterfly fauna of three varying habitates on South Western Nigeria. FUTA J Res Sci. 2015;1:1–6.

Khan AU. Home garden and women participation: A mini review. Current Research in Agriculture and Farming. 2021b;2(4):46–52.

Khan AU, Afsana AS. A review on present status, challenges, and prospect of apiculture in Bangladesh. International Conference on Social Sciences Business Management and Education. 2021;15(2).

Khan AU, Choudhury ARM, Ferdous J, Islam MS, Rahaman MS. Varietal performances of country beans against insect pests in Bean Agroecosystem. Bangladesh Journal of Entomology. 2019;29:27– 37.

Khan AU, Choudhury M, Islam M, Maleque DM. Abundance and fluctuation patterns of insect pests in country bean abundance and fluctuation patterns of insect pests in country Bean. Journal of Sylhet Agricultural University. 2018; 5(2):167–172.

Khan AU, Choudhury MAR, Khanal S, Maukeeb ARM. Chrysanthemum production in Bangladesh significance the insect pests and diseases management: A review. Journal of Multidisciplinary Applied Natural Science. 2021;1(1):25- 35.

Khan AU, Choudhury MAR, Talucder MSR, Hossain MS, Ali S, Akter T Ehsanullah. Constraints and solutions of country bean (Lablab purpureus L.) production: A review. Acta Entomology and Zoology. 2020;1(2):37–45.

Khan AU, Khanal S, Gyawali S. Insect pests and diseases of cinnamon and their management in agroforestry system: A review. Acta Entomology and Zoology. 2020;1(2):51–59.

Khan AU, Choudhury MAR, Khanal S, Maukeeb ARM. Management of insect pests and diseases of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus l.) in agroforestry system: A review. Acta Entomology and Zoology. 2021;2(1):37–46.

Khan AU, Choudhury M, Dash C, Shiuly U, Khan,Ehsanullah M. Insect pests of country bean and their relationships with temperature. Bangladesh Journal of Ecology. 2020;2(1):43–46.

Khan AU. Review on Importance of Artocarpus heterophyllus L. (Jackfruit). Journal of Multidisciplinary Applied Natural Science. 2021;1(2):106–116.

Khan AU. Status of mango fruit infestation at home garden in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Current Research in Agriculture and Farming. 2020;1(4): 5–42.

Khan AU, Choudhury MAR, Talucder MSR, Hossain MS, Ali S, Akter T, Ehsanullah M. Constraints and solutions of country bean (Lablab purpureus L.) Production: A review. Acta Entomology and Zoology. 2020;1(2):37–45.

Khew SK. A field guide to the butterflies of Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 2010;66:217–257

Kiepiel I, Johnson S. Shift from bird to butterfly pollination in Clivia (Amaryllidaceae). Americ J Botany. 2014;101:37-39.

Kocher SD, Williams EH. The diversity and abundance of North American butterflies vary with habitat disturbance and geography. Journal of Biogeography. 2000;27:785–794.

Konvicka M, Fric Z, Benes J. Butterfly extinctions in European states: Do socioeconomic conditions matter more than physical geography? Global Ecol Biogeogr. 2006;15:82–92.

Larsen TB. Butterflies of West Africa. Apollo Books, Svendborg, Denmark. 595:135.

Larsen TB. The butterflies of the Niligiri mountains of the Southern India (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera). Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. 1987a;84(1):26-54.

Maguran A. Measuring Biological Diversity. USA: Blackwell Science Limited. 2005b;6.

Maguran A. Measuring Biological Diversity. USA: Blackwell Science Limited. 2004;6.

Murphy DD, Weiss SB. long-term monitoring plan fora threatened butterfly, Conservation Biology. 1988;2:367–374.

NP. (ed.): Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta, Part 35: Lepidoptera, Moths and Butterflies Vol.1: Evolution, Systematics, and Biogeography: 263-300.

Nelson SM. Butterflies (Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea) as potential ecological indicators of riparian quality in the semi-arid western United States. Ecol. Ind. 2007;7(2):469–480.

Nelson SM, Andersen DC. An Assessment of Riparian environmental quality by using butterflies and disturbance susceptibility scores. Southwest. Nat. 1994;39(2):137.

Okpiliya FI. Ecological diversity indices: Any hope for one again?. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2012; 2(10):45-52.

Omayio D, Mzungu E. Modification of shannonweiner diversity index towards quantitative estimation of environmental wellness and biodiversity levels under a noncomparative scenario. Journal of Environment and Earth Science. 2019; 9(9):46-57.

Padhya AD, Dahanukar N, Paingankar M, DeshpandeM, Deshpande D. Season and landscape-wise distribution of butterflies in Tamhini, Northern and Western Ghats, India. Zoos Print Journal. 2006;21(3): 2175- 2181.

Pierce NE, Braby MF, Heath A, Lohman DJ, Mathew J,Rand, DB.The ecology and evolution of ant association in the Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera.) Annual Review of Entomology. 2002.47:733-771.

Pisuth, Ek-Amnuay.Butterflies of Thailand. 2nd Edition, Precis pluviatilis Fruhstor.1782. Berl, ent.Z. Berlin. 2002;45:22.

Pisuth. Ek-Amnuay.Butterflies of Thailand. 2nd Edition; 2012. ISBN 13: 9786162079887

Precis, pluviatilis Fruhstor. Berl, ent.Z. Berlin. 1782;45:22.

Precis, vaisya Fruhstorfer. In Seitz; The Macrolepidoptera of the world. 1912;9:520.

Price PW. Resource-driven terrestrial interaction webs. Ecol. Res. 2002;17(2):241- 247.

Pywell R, Meek W, Hulmes L, Hulmes S, James K, Nowakowski M, Carvell C. Management to enhance pollen and nectar resources for bumblebees and butterflies within intensively farmed landscapes. Journal of Insect Conservation. 2011;15:1-12.

Rödder D, Schmitt T, Gros P, Ulrich W, Habel JC. Climate change drives mountain butterflies towards the summits. Sci. Rep. 2021;11(1): 14382,

Rosenberg DM, Danks HV, Lehmkuhl DM. Importance of insects in environmental impact assessment. Environmental Management. 1986;10:773-783.

Settele J, Kudrna O, Harpke O, Kühn I, Swaay CV, Verovnik R, Schweiger O. Climatic risk atlas of European butterflies. BioRisk. 2008;1:1-712.

Shah KK, Modi B, Pandey HP, Subedi A, Aryal G, Pandey M, Shrestha J. Diversified crop rotation: anapproach for sustainable agriculture production. Advances in Agriculture. 2021;9:1-9.

Sharma K, Acharya BK, Sharma G, Valente D, Pasimeni M, Petrosillo I, Selvan T. Land use effect on butterfly alpha and beta diversity in the Eastern Himalayas, India. Ecological Indicators. 2020;110:105605.

Shields O. World numbers of Butterflies. Journal of the Lepidopterists Society. 1989;431:178–183.

Siddiqui A, Singh SP. A checklist of the butterfly diversity of Panna Forest (MP). National Journal of Life Sciences. 2004; 1(2)403:406.

Simpson EH. Measurement of diversity. Nature. 1949;12:1-20.

Singh RK, Chandra K. An inventory of butterflies of Chhatisgarh. Journal of Tropical Forestry. 2002;18(1):67-74.

Singh V, Bisht SS, Rajwar N, Miglani R. Avian diversity and its ecological impact on agro-ecosystems as biological pest control agents near Sharda River bank, Uttarakhand, India. Journal of Entomological Research. 2019;43(4):547-554.

Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Clements R, Wanger TC, Hill JK, Hamer KC, Lee TM. Conserving southeast asian forest biodiversity in human-modified landscapes. Biological Conservation. 2010;143(10):2375-2384.

Sparrow HR, Sisk TD, Ehrlich PR, Murphy DD. Tech-niques and guidelines for monitoring neotropical butterflies. Conservation Biology. 1994; 8(3):800–809.

Spitzer K, Jaros J, Havelka Lepˇs JJ. Effect of small-scale disturbance on butterfly communities of an Indo-chinese montane rainforest. Biological Conservation. 1997;80(1):9–15.

Swengel A. Butterflies and ecosystem management, North American Butterfly association; 2003.

Thomas D, Barbey R, Henry D, Surdin-Kerjan Y. Physiological analysis of mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired in sulphate assimilation. J. Gen. Microbiol. 1992; 138(10):2021-2028.30

Thomas J, Telfer M, Roy DB, Preston CD, Roy D, Greenwood JD, Asher J, Fox R, Clarke RT, Lowton JH. Comparative losses of British butterflies, birds and plants and the global extinction crisis. Science. 2004;303:1879-1881.

Thomas JD. Using pollination deficits to infer pollinator decline: Can theory guide us? Conservation Ecology. 2001;5(1):6-8.

Vane-Wright RI, Humpheries CJ, Williams PH. What to protect? Systematics and the agony of choice. Biol Conserv. 1991;55:235-254.s

Varshney RK. Index Rhopalocera indica. Part III. Genera of butterflies from India and neighboring countries (Lepidoptera: (A) Papilionidae,Pieridae and Danaidae). Oriental insect. 1999;27:347-372.

Vitthalrao B, Khyade Sharad, G Jagtap.Diversity of butterflies (Order: Lepidoptera) in Mayureshwar Wildlife Sanctuary of Baramati Tehsil Dist. Pune (India). International Academic Institute for Science and Technology; 2016.

Wood B, Gillman MP. The effects of disturbance on forest butterflies using two methods of sampling in Trinidad. Biodiversity and Conservation. 1998;7: 597–616.32.

Woodcock BA, Savage J, Bullock JM, Nowakowski M, Orr R, Tallowin JRB, Pywell RF. Enhancing floral resources for pollinators in productive agricultural grasslands.Biol. Conserv. 2014;171:44-51.

Yager GO, Agbidye FS, Okoh AO. Diversity and abundance of butterfly species (Lepidoptera) fauna in the Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi Forestry Nursery, Benue state, Nigeria. J Res Forestry, Wildlife & Environ. 2016;8(3):83–89.