Introduction: Retinal vein occlusions (RVOs) are the most common retinal vascular disease second to diabetic retinopathy and a major cause of vision loss.
Methods: The present study was done at our tertiary care center to study the role of risk factors in Retinal Venous Occlusive diseases and correlation of occurrence of lesions with various risk factors. The study objective is to study the role of risk factors in Retinal Venous Occlusive diseases.
Results: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a significant cause of loss of vision. Of the two major types of RVO, Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion (BRVO) is 4-6 times more widespread than Central Retinal Vein Occlusion (CRVO) and is the most frequent type of RVO. Hyperhomocysteinemia is a significant risk factor for RVO in patients below 40 years on age. Presence of multiple risk factors increases the chances of development of RVO.
Conclusion: There is a statistically significant difference between Known cases and Newly Diagnosed cases of RVOs, showing that there is a higher risk of developing RVOs in patients.
Introduction-Spinal anesthesia, a kind of local anesthesia, where the conduction square of the nerve roots is cultivated by infusing a limited quantity of nearby sedative arrangement into the subarachnoid liquid through a lumbar puncture. The adaptability of spinal sedation is managed by a wide scope of nearby sedatives and added substances that permit power over the level, the hour of onset and the span of spinal sedation. Purpose-The purpose of this analysis is to compare the effectiveness of ropivacaine 0.5 per cent with dexmedetomidine 5 mcg and ropivacaine 0.5 per cent alone in spinal anaesthesia. Method-This study was conducted to compare the effects of isobaric ropivacaine 0.5% with and without dexmedetomidine 5 mcg in spinal anaesthesia in lower limb. Conclusion-Study conclude that Dexmedetomidine as an adjunct to 0.5% Ropivacaine is superior to 0.5% Ropivacaine alone in spinal anaesthesia.
The present investigation was conducted to determine the composition of insect community from a hill stream of holy river Pamba, in the Western Ghats. Collection of both aquatic and riparian insects from the respective stream stretch was carried out during the period of January –December 2019, based on their nature and habit. A total of 25 species of insects belonging to six orders, 14 families and 20 genera were reported from the hill stream in the Western Ghats. The healthy stream supported a rich insect community, which showed population fluctuation on a seasonal basis. Substrate stability, stream drainage basin, physico-chemical parameters and the surrounding vegetation determined the composition and diversity of stream associated insects in the respected area.
A hospital based prospective study was done with 50 patients to evaluate right iliac fossa lesions. Aim of the study is to study the clinical profile and various causes of right iliac fossa lesions. The most common disease in our study was appendicular mass (40%) followed by appendicular abscess (30%), iliopsoas abscess (10%), Ileocaecal tuberculosis (8%) and carcinoma cecum (6%). There was 1 case each of right undescended testis with malignant change, right ectopic kidney and Non-Hodgkin‘s lymphoma of ileum, each of these cases accounting for 2% of the total cases in our study. All patients having right iliac fossa lesions either clinically or on Ultrasonography of the abdomen. The appendicular pathology accounted for 70% of all causes of right iliac fossa mass in this study.
Hernia is probably the disease since mankind came into existence. The main reason for the intervention, however, remained the same, i.e. the continuous development of inguinal and scrotum inflammation, dislocation, strangulation risk, and the bad results of conservative methods such as truss placement. The study objective is to compare the post-operative complications of conventional and laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with meshplasty. 100 patients were subjected to the inguinal hernia repair by prolene mesh by either conventional or laparoscopic techniques in Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences “Deemed To Be University” (KIMS), Karad during the period of from October 2015 to June 2017. The laparoscopic method requires, at least in unilateral situations, considerably longer operating times. The operation time is, however, not substantially different in bilateral situations. There is also a lengthy learning curve for the laparoscopic procedure and surgeons with more experience with the technique are capable of shorter operation times as well as less complications.
Use of biological agents for the control of mosquitoes is of paramount importance owing to its ecofriendly nature. The predatory potential of Diplonychus indicus and Ranatra filiformis was evaluated on the third instar larvae of dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus as prey under laboratory simulated natural conditions for three consecutive days. The predatory impact and clearance rate was calculated, and in addition, the mutual interference constant between predators when present in multiple numbers was also determined from the data pertaining to the clearance rate. The predatory impact values for Diplonychus indicus and Ranatra filiformis against Aedes aegypti ranged from 17.3 to 20.0, and 17.8 to 19.2, and against Aedes albopictus, it was 16.8 to 20.6, and 14.6 to 15.9 respectively. The predatory impact did not vary among the two predator species and the two prey species, and so was the interaction between them too, although it was pintsized higher in Diplonychus indicus. The clearance rate for Diplonychus indicus and Ranatra filiformis against Aedes aegypti ranged from 2.5 to 2.8, and 2.1 to 2.5, while it ranged from 1.2 to 1.8, and 1.4 to 2.0 against Aedes albopictus respectively. The clearance rate values did not vary between the predator species and days, though with pintsized difference on Day 2. Diplonychus indicus and Ranatra filiformis consumed dengue larvae effectively, and the rate of consumption amongst the two predators differed in a miniscule which might be due to the difference in the life history traits and features of the predators, and hence play an important role in the regulation of dengue larval mosquito population.
Urea is a naturally occurring end product of amino acid metabolism in mammalian body. It is also a wide spread fertilizer and considered a nontoxic compound. However repeated exposure to urea has been reported to cause damage to vital body organs like liver, kidney etc. Present study was to evaluate the histopathological effects of urea on liver, kidney and testis as well as their correlation with serum biomarkers ALT, AST concentration as well as investigation of sperm head anomaly. For the study a total of 45 Swiss albino mice were taken and divided into 9 groups each consisting of 5 mice. Group I was kept as control group and given only a normal diet. Remaining groups of animals were given different doses of urea i.e. 50% and 75% of LD50 concentrations of urea at different hour intervals i.e. 24, 48, 72, 96 hours. All the animals were kept in standard experimental condition. There was gradual loss of body weight of treated mice with increased dose of urea. The tissue sections revealed histological alteration of the organs in the treatment group mice which may correlate with the increased concentration of serum ALT, AST and sperm head anomaly. The observations of the study also confirmed the toxic effects of the apparently non-toxic compound, urea at high and repeated doses. It is found that the test compound severely damages the histological architecture as well as function of the liver, kidney and testis.
In Bulgaria, there are many mineral water springs with opportunities for research on different bacterial species. The present study aims to investigate the bacterial research of mineral waters in the region of Varna, Bulgaria. The results showed three species of genus Bacillus isolated from warm mineral waters, Varna, Bulgaria. The colonial and physiological characteristics of the isolated strains are defined. The isolated strains are identified by software processing with mass spectrometry MALDI-TOF MS Versus 16S rRNA Gene. The results obtained from the biochemical and molecular studies indicate that the isolated strains belong to different species of genus Bacillus.
In 2010 Ignatov researched hot mineral waters in Bulgaria and conducted comparative spectrum analysis with cactus juice. In the spectrum of cactus juice and the hot mineral water we observed five comparable local extremums (8.95; 9.67; 9.81; 10.47; 11.13 μm), whereas there was only one (9.10 μm) with the sea water. It is therefore justified to suggest that most probably life originated in hot mineral water. Ignatov and Mosin performed analyses with Bacillus subtilis with heavy water for analyses of the initial condition for origin of life in hot mineral water in primary atmosphere. According to their temperature they can be cold (up to 37° С), warm (from 37°C to 60°C) and hot (over 60°C). This is temperature standard in Bulgaria, European Union.
In Varna there is place with stromatolites and cyanobacteria in warm mineral waters.
This is the purpose the authors to make research of warm waters in Varna as model system for origin of life in warm and hot mineral waters.
In a taxonomic investigation of insect parasitic nematodes during the month of February, 2019 at Khordak village of Thanga, Manipur, many nematodes were recovered. Among them, one of the specimens belonging the genus Cameronia was found to present many morphological characters that are different from the other already known species.The genus Cameronia was established by Basir, 1948 with Cameronia biovata as its type species recovered from the insect Gryllotalpa africana. This present newly recovered specimen is characterised by the presence of single annule around the mouth opening, followed by a large prominent second annule, with many small spine like structures seen each and every junction of successive cephalic annules up to the end of oesophagus. Body annules are faintly visible. The eggs are elliptical and elongated. The present specimen come closer to the three known species of the genus Cameronia viz. C. triovata, C. manipurensis and C. meerutensis. The comparative study however reveals many differences from the three species, mainly on their morphological structure. After considering the main points of differences, the present specimen has not to be accommodated under any known species but as a new species under the genus Cameronia and proposing a new name of species as Cameronia conoides n.sp. on the basis of conoid shaped tail.
Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by selective demyelination of neurons and chronic inflammation in the Central Nervous System (CNS) white matter. Genetic and environmental factors are the major risk contributors of MS. The factors that mediate the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis include TNFα, CD8+T cells, CCL11, iNOS, etc. Despite advancement in medicine still, there is a high rising number of MS patients, thus there’s a need for an effective drug for its treatment with no side effects. Due to the unavailability of medicine without side effects, there is an urgent need for alternative medicine. Herbals have potent antioxidant; anti-inflammatory, rejuvenating, and immune-modulatory properties with negligible side effects. Due to all these aspects, herbal-based medicines are becoming more popular and are serving as a better alternative to the pre-existing drugs, proving to be efficient in treating MS.
Methods: An in silico approach was utilized for the selection of the herbals for targeting the key factors involved in the pathogenesis of MS. In total, 10 factors and pathways were identified as targets for MS; their % relevance and weightage matrix scores were calculated. The binary matrix analysis of the considered MS factors in herbals was calculated and the herbals with the potential for treating MS were identified.
Results: The binary matrix analysis of the considered MS factors of 50 herbals has revealed that 20 herbals are showing an acceptable score. Weightage matrix and the fuzzy set membership analysis of the selected 20 herbals were performed and a database of 17 herbals was obtained.
Conclusion: In total, we have identified 17 herbals, which have shown remarkable potential for treating Multiple Sclerosis.
Orthoptera diversity of Bharathapuzha riparian ecosystem was conducted from April 2019 to January 2020. Maximum species abundance was recorded in Monsoon season 21 species (Karakkad), 21 species (Mannanur) and 16 species (Thrangali) were obtained. Similarly followed by pre- monsoon 15 species (Karrakkad), 11 species (Mannanur) and 9 species (Thrangali) and followed by Post- monsoon 8 species (Karakkad), 8 species (Mannanur) and 10 species (Thrangali) respectively.
Crustaceans play major role in ecological enhancement and improvement in economic value of Indian fisheries. Due to over exploitation and constant demand, various species of crustaceans in wild had gradually decreased from 1996 to 2016 all around India which lead to great ecological imbalance. According to IUCN Red Data List 2019 about 27% of selected crustaceans are in threatened category globally whereas in India about 1.54% of crustaceans are in threatened category and about 37.5% of crustacean data are deficient. Out of 17.5% of global endemic crustacean species about 5.9% of endemic crustaceans are found in India but the worst scenario is the population of these species too has deteriorated due to over exploitation. This will lead to enormous loss to biodiversity by not finding any clue about unexplored extinct species. At this juncture, taxonomy plays key role in assessment of species in the wild and employs in assisting conservative programs for documenting biodiversity. It also provides checklist for in-situ conservation of those species which in turn help in elevating the economic development of crustacean fisheries. It will also help in creating awareness on the alarming condition of biodiversity loss. This article explains the exact scenario of crustacean population in India and highlights the role of taxonomy in its conservation.