There is no information on karyotyping of Cyprinus carpio in the country. The objective of this study is to detect and differentiate between the karyotypical structure of Cyprinus carpio from the two intra-specific river systems of one tropical Narmada River, Madhya Pradesh, and the temperate Jhelum River, Kashmir. Karyotypes of Species' were classified based on size, type, and structure, such as metacentric (M), submetacentric (SM), subtelocentric (ST), and acrocentric/telocentric (A/T). Methods of chromosome preparations were in detail described by RAB (1981). Their findings revealed that interspecific and even intergeneric differences of Cyprinus carpio of two rivers differences are if any, negligible. All these facts show that the karyotype conservatism occurs in the Cyprinidae subfamily. This conclusion is consistent with the same evolutionary methods of karyotype.
Pollen morphology of ten nectariferous and polleniferous bee floral resources of honeybees Apis cerana F. (Asian honeybee) and Apis mellifera L. (European honeybee) was studied by using scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains of Foeniculum vulgare, Taraxacum officinale, Jacaranda mimosifolia, Sechium edule, Emblica officinalis, Ocimum sanctum, Lagerstroemia indica, Cedrela toona, Eucalyptus tereticornis and Moringa oleifera belonging to different bee favored families were examined for the morphological characterization. The pollen grains were analyzed for aggregation, shape, shape class, size, aperture, polarity, symmetry and exine ornamentation. All the pollens observed in the study had solitary grains, isopolar and have radial symmetry. The shape and shape class of pollen grains varies among different families. The size of pollen grains studied ranged from small, medium to large sized among different plant families. Most of pollens observed were 3-colporate, except pollens of Sechium edule which were 9-colpate, Emblica officinalis and Lagerstroemia indica were 3-4-zonocolporate, Ocimum sanctum were 6-colpate, Cedrela toona and Moringa oleifera were 3- zonocolporate. Variation was also observed in surface pattern of different pollens belonging to different families.
Birds including house sparrows and house crows have always been considered as ecosystem indicators reflecting the health of the environment. Complete absence of a species (that was previously abundant) is not desirable from the ecologist’s point of view. Anthropogenic activities like urbanization and deforestation have peaked in recent years resulting in the loss of biodiversity. This is not solely linked to the number of species but also the interactions among them that shapes up the ecosystem. The current study focuses on the sudden disappearance of house sparrows and house crows. The study area chosen was Chinsurah, West Bengal, India, as the place has undergone rapid urban growth in the last two decades with simultaneous erosion of the sparrow and crow populations. The urban sprawl of Chinsurah in the past few years was studied using satellite imagery data (from Google earth) and Landsat data (from GLCF) captured on a temporal scale. The study area was surveyed for documenting the preferable habitats of birds where they were found roosting. A comparative study of the architecture of the old and new/renovated buildings shows that buildings with modern designs lack suitable nesting sites. In addition, the loss of tree cover deprives the birds of their foraging grounds. Bird species like common myna, greater coucal, Indian treepie, black drongo and black kite have been observed living close to human settlements in the study area. They are known to exert predatory and/or competition pressures on house sparrows and house crows. Other factors affecting the sparrow and crow populations were also investigated. The declining bird species seems to affect the urban ecosystem by causing shifts in ecological balance. This can, however, be minimized by considering the ecological factors while planning urban expansion. Therefore, future studies should not be aimed solely to conserve the biodiversity but also to preserve the ecosystem balance and prevent the loss of another species through sustainable urban growth.
Periphytic communities are a major component of wetland ecosystem which are influenced by several ecological factors like light, temperature, nutrients, and space availability in the water. Immense potential does exist towards increase in fish production about 3 times through aquaculture based on periphyton. Present investigation was carried out in two floodplain wetlands having unique characteristics of both open (Amda beel) as well as close (Suguna beel) system for two consecutive years during October, 2018 to September, 2020. Periphytic community, Soil and water quality and fish production of the beels were estimated and assessed in monthly interval during the study. Maintenance of a healthy aquatic environment and production of sufficient fish food organisms in the water bodies are two basic factors of primary importance for boosting fish production. A mixed population of diversified fauna constitutes the periphytic population of the investigated ecosystems. The values of species diversity clearly indicated that both the wetlands were favourable for harbouring balanced population of the periphytic fauna. In this paper an attempt has been made to study comparative status of fish production in relation to periphytic structure in unique ecosystems where flowing and stagnant conditions were compared. From the point of view of fish crop, the Suguna was more productive as indicated by the annual fish yield being 1601.01 - 1688.58 kg ha-1yr-1. In this beel the major carp contributed maximum towards production (54.17 - 87.53 %). The per cent contribution of miscellaneous group of fishes in Suguna was 9.59-45.83 during the study. The annual average fish production of the Amda fluctuated between 353.76 – 442.85 kg ha-1yr-1. The major contributor to the fish catches were the miscellaneous species (about 62%). The carps contributed 6.64 – 68.95% of the fish production in Amda. The fish production in the open beel was found to be very low in spite of higher biomass of periphytic community was mainly due to higher siltation rate, poor management, weed infestations and nutrient imbalances, and many more issues related with the river connectivity leading to natural fluctuations in the water level in the beel. The situations in these beels are complex and needs the balance to maintain sustainable fish production and associated livelihood in equilibrium with socio-environmental ethics.
Dieldrin is an organochlorine pesticide that is extensively used in Maharashtra, as a broad-spectrum insecticide on a variety of crops including rice and groundnut. It's a soil and systemic insecticide and miticide that's used to get rid of sucking and chewing insects, mites, and other pests that live in the soil. Dieldrin's impact on total carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids was studied in the gills, liver, and brain of Cyprinus carpio after a 21-day sub-lethal toxicity exposure. The sub-lethal dosage was calculated to be 0.23g/L. At the end of 21 days, the organs of exposed and control fish were removed and utilised to calculate total carbohydrates, total proteins, and total lipids. In all of the calculated parameters of the 21-day exposure, there was a significant difference between the control and exposed groups in all of the organs. Total carbohydrates, total proteins, and total lipids all reduced as the days of sub-lethal exposure increased in the current research, up to the conclusion of 21 days of exposure. Biochemical parameters are significant indicators in assessing the degree of toxicity induced by dieldrin in this research.
Reaction of Advanced Yield Trial (AYT) clones were screened for their resistance reaction against internode borer, INB Chilo sacchariphagus indicus at Sugarcane Research Station, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu during December, 2019-20 and May, 2020-21. Results revealed, out of 30 AYT clones and a standard variety CoC 24 the mean percent internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus damage was ranged from the minimum of 2.1 (C 15645) percent to the maximum of 43 (C 15181) percent. In the advanced yield trial (AYT) (29) clones are less susceptible to internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus. The clone C 15004 was moderately susceptible (MS) during 2019-20 seeing for INB resiotance.
In another screening experiment during 2019 July there were 20 Advanced yield trial (AYT-II) clones and two standard varieties were studied for INB resistance and infestation intensity. The mean percent INB damage was ranged from 2.4 (C 16353) to the maximum of 52.5 (C 16122). Out of 20 AYT-II clones, nineteen clones viz., C 16415, C 16276, C 16021, C 16335, C 16183, C 16035, C 16418, C 16086, C 16282, C 16331, C 16338, C 16031, C 16034, C 16097, C 16038, C 16108, C 16137, C 16353 and C 16270 and the standard varieties Co 86032 and CoC 25 were under Less susceptible grade (LS). The mean percent internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus infestation intensity was ranged from the minimum of 12 (C 16035) to the maximum of 66.8 (C 16335). During 2020-21, May month advanced yield trial (AYT) sugarcane clones (22) and three standard varieties, put together 25 entries were planted in Randomized Block Design with two replications against the internode borer, Chilo sacchariphagus indicus. The observations on the sugarcane internode borer damage was followed as done in 2019-20 season experiment. Out of 25 entries, 18 clones were less susceptible to internode borer. Less susceptible clones are: C2016-031, C2016-035, C2016-038, C2016-069, C2016-086, C2016-097, C2016-108, C2016-122, C2016-183, C2016-261, C2016-270, C2016-282, C2016-304, C2016-331, C2016-337, C2016-338, C2016-415, C2016-418 and a standard variety Co 86032.
HSP gene polymorphism has been widely studied across the globe and particularly with reference to various liver diseases and HCC. Data pertaining to HSP gene polymorphism is lacking from NE India region and there are lacunae of information at the proteomic and bioinformatics level. NE region of India is known for its high incidence of cancer cases. The current study was designed to study the polymorphism of HSP genes in different liver disease cases from Guwahati, India and to predict 3D structure of the proteins from the studied genes by using different bioinformatics tools as well as calculating different physio-chemical information of those studied proteins. The DNA extraction was done followed by PCR amplification and RFLP. EMBOSS Transeq tool and I- TASSER SERVER were used to model the proteins of interest. The results showed that HSPA1B and HSPA1L polymorphisms are significantly associated with advanced stages of liver diseases. Stable protein 2D and 3D models were successfully proposed in this study. The current study highlights the importance of studying cancer critical gene and the need of bioinformatics softwares to generate data.
The current research focuses on the periphytic diversity of the Mal Gad stream in Uttarkashi, Uttarakhand, India. The coordinates of this spring-fed stream are Latitude: 30°52'38.25"N and Longitude: 78°4'11.49"E. During the investigation it was found that the periphytic algal diversity of Mal Gad stream was represented by 19 genera belonging to 3 major classes namely Bacillariophyceae (Cymbella sp., Synedra sp., Navicula sp., Fragilaria sp., Gomphonema sp., Achnanthes sp., Bacillaria sp., Diatoma sp. and Tabellaria sp.), Chlorophyceae (Oedogonium sp.,Spirogyra sp., Microspora sp., Volvox sp., Zygenema sp., Cladophora sp., Geminela sp., and Ulothrix sp.) and Cyanophyceae (Nostoc sp. and Rivularia sp,). The present investigation will be helpful in enhancing the knowledge regarding the production potential of the water body. The dominance of Bacillariophyceae indicates the healthy ecological condition of the stream. Based on the study, the stream is found favorable for the culture of herbivorous snow-trout, Schizothorax sp. on a commercial scale.
The study aimed to evaluate the feed supplementation on the growth performance of cultivable Indian major carp, Labeo rohita- initiative in replacing fish meal for sustainable aquaculture. The present experimental approach was designed for analyzing the importance of formulated feeding for a period of 90 days by providing feed supplements in the diet like minor millets comprising dried finger millet, Pearl millet and foxtail millet feed along with normal groundnut oilcake. Control fishes were fed with normal groundnut cake feed. Considerable increase was observed in the body weight, length and growth indices of the experimental fishes fed with millet diets, specifically when all the three varieties of minor millets were provided in combination which is highly recommended for improving the growth performance of fish.
Upper Lake (Bhoj Tal or Bada talab) is a man-made reservoir. The water body of Upper lake receives domestic discharge which leads a large amount of nutrient inputs and the highest amount of nitrate and phosphate indicates that water is eutrophic in nature. The present study has been carried out to study seasonal abundance of certain zooplankton in Upper lake, Bhopal. The abundance of zooplankton was studied in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon season. In the present study zooplanktons comprised of total 5 taxonomic groups: Protozoa, Ostracoda, Rotifera, Cladocera and Copepoda. The greater abundance of zooplankton was recorded during summer season while the lowest abundance was recorded during the monsoon season.
In the present study, initially the identification of Zooplanktons (Rotifers, Cladocerans & Copepods) was carried out at the level of Genus, using standard keys and manual. Samples were collected following standard methods from five major freshwater bodies of Dhing area. Quantitative enumeration of the identified genera under the three groups-Rotifera, Cladocera, and Copepoda were done and studied in relation to the water quality (BOD) of the freshwater bodies. A total of 14 genera were recorded, of which 5 genera belonged to Rotifers, 6 genera to Cladocerans and 3 genera to Copepods. The rotifer population showed positive correlation to degrading water quality (increasing BOD) while cladoceran & copepod population showed negative correlation with rising BOD.
Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) commonly found in the freshwater bodies of Kerala was used in this study as the experimental fish so as to determine the effect of salinity on the respiration rate of the fish. The fishes were exposed to different salinities (5ppt, 10ppt, 15ppt, 20ppt) for a period of one hour. The sample with 0ppt salinity was taken as the control. Using Winkler’s method, the dissolved oxygen level in the water taken at different intervals (5th minutes, 15th minutes, 30th minutes and 1 hour) from the sample solutions were estimated. In control (0ppt) average oxygen consumption during different time interval was found to be stable at 0.12 mg/ml/g body weight. The dissolved oxygen consumption by fish increased with increasing salinities from 0ppt to 10ppt, then decreased in 15ppt and 20ppt, besides this consumption of Oxygen decreased from 5th minutes to 60th minutes of exposure. The opercular beats of the fish was noted and it was found that in the control (with 0 ppt salinity), the rate of opercular beats was quite steady without a huge rise or fall and the average value noted was 122/minutes. In all other salinities (5, 10, 15 and 20 ppt), the opercular beats was decreased from 1st minute to 60th minute. The rate of opercular beats was lower in the control when compared with 5ppt,10ppt, 15ppt and 20ppt.Even though Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) is very sturdy fish, and tides over stressful environment conditions, salinity changes in this experimental setup caused changes in the respiration rate of the fish. So this study discloses how other less sturdy aquatic fauna could easily succumb to salinity change in their environment.
Polyamines (PAs) are polycationic, biosynthetic intermediate metabolites of amino acids and regulate many metabolic processes inside cells i.e., organization of DNA, RNA, transcription and translation etc., which contribute to promoting growth and development in animals. The DABA bivoltine (2 crops/year) ecorace of Tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta is reared by tribal populations in Indian forest ecosystems mainly for livelihood. Due to its rearing in natural wild conditions, the abiotic and biotic environmental stress led to 60-70% crop loss in every rearing. Silk yarn is used in textile industries while raw and fabricated products possess export value. Recent investigations revealed that silk proteins viz., fibroin and Sericin tend to have high potential biomaterial for tissue engineering. Hence, there is a need to select high-yielding and disease-resistant varieties for sustainable crop improvement. As silk production relies on the fifth instar larval and silk gland development, which in turn is determined by quality food intake and molecular mechanism contributed by nutritive supplements, the present work is taken up which was not explored to date. The fifth instar larvae of A. mylitta D (Daba TV) were allowed to feed on the Terminalia arjuna leaves treated with polyamines (Spermidine, Spermine and Putrescine) in 50 µM, 100 µM and 150 µMconcentrations. The larval behaviour was studied; larval characteristics, silk gland development, silkworm Body Mass Index (BMI), mortality and Effective Rearing Rate (ERR) were estimated statistically and interpreted. The study revealed significant enhancement in larval, silk gland weight and disease resistance in certain specified concentrations of PAs.
In recent years, the mortality rate remains unacceptably high despite many advancements made in the field of lung-related diseases. This can be attributed to the lack of current preclinical models and the inability to translate fundamental epithelial studies into clinical therapy. Three-dimensional cultures have properties present in stem cells, such as the ability to self-organize in matrices and able to generate structures that can be reprogrammed to represent an organ or a pathology. By adding source tissue ranging from cells to tissue fragments to a support matrix and specialized media, the generation of 3D organoid cultures are achieved resembling the physiological environment of the tissue’s origin. Depending on the source tissue, growth factors, and inhibitors provided, organoids can be programmed to recapitulate the biology of a system and the progression of a pathology. In this review, the main objective is to discuss recent technical advances that efficiently use organoids as a tool for disease modeling, regenerative medicine, toxicology studies, therapeutics and various techniques used for large scale organoid generation. Using animal models for drug screening and toxicology studies has certain drawbacks, but organoids can help to overcome these obstacles. The advantages of stem cell-derived organoid models in comparison to current culture systems are highlighted, recent developments in tissue-based organoids are becoming specialized models for studies related to human translation medicine.
Glossogobius giuris (Hamilton, 1822), commonly known as tank goby or Bele, is an important food fish of Indian subcontinents for being inexpensive and nutrient-rich. It is widely distributed in freshwater bodies of India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Myanmar. The morphological features of this fish are striking with distinct sexual dimorphism. The feeding habits vary with season and different age groups. Based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of gut contents, this fish has been categorized as carnivores. When young ones are abundant, cannibalism has also been observed in this fish group. It has a prolonged breeding period with prolific breeding habits and maximum availability during the rainy season. This fish is full of nutrients with a very low percentage of carbohydrate and lipid but with high protein content and thus increases the demand among fish lovers. The tank goby also drags the attention of aquarium keepers and is considered a small indigenous species in Bangladesh and India. The present review has been prepared to gather the published literature on different biological aspects of Glossogobius giuris, the further study of which will not only help to make fishery industry more vibrant and economically viable but also for conservation of this important food fish.