Amylases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of glucosidic bonds present in starch and related polysaccharides. In the present study, the enzymatic activity and kinetics of the human salivary amylase is studied at different substrate concentrations. The substrate concentrations considered in the experiment were 0.10%, 0.30%, 0.50% and 0.70%. With the increase in substrate concentration, the velocity of the reaction increased up to its highest level (i.e., a Vmax of 931.80 U/dL) and thereafter the enzyme velocity was reduced. The Km (Michaelis constant) value of amylase activity is found to be 0.07242 U/dL from the Line weaver-Burk plot.
At 0.50% substrate concentration the mean amylase activity obtained is 931.25 U/dL. The mean enzyme activity is found to be 402.65 U/dL and 477.12 U/dL with the addition of Areca catechu & tobacco extract respectively. The Areca nut and tobacco extract suppressed the amylase activity to a significant extent. The Vmax and Km values of amylase with Areca catechu extract are found to be 322.5 U/dL and 0.03306 U/dL respectively. The Vmax and Km values with another inhibitor Nicotiana tabacum are found to be 546.2 U/dL and 0.1198 U/dL respectively. Amylase inhibitors are known as starch blockers because they prevent dietary starches from being digested and absorbed by the body. The polyphenols present in these components bind readily to the protein and cause inhibition.
Solid Waste Management must be incorporated into environmental planning. It has profound impact on health and hygiene of the community. Waste is generated from different sources such as industrial, residential and commercial activities in a given area and goes through a process of segregation, treatment and final disposal in the landfill. Waste segregation and management is a scientific process by which we can categorise waste products and garbage on the basis of what we can re-use, recycle, reduce. Garbage collection is the responsibility of the respective municipalities in urban areas. In the present investigation garbage management issues of Curchorem - Cacora Municipal Council were scrutinized. Total garbage collected during the study period in the municipal council was 239 tonnes. Ward number 2 produced maximum garbage i.e., 5.0428 tonnes/day and ward number 8 produced minimum garbage with 1.0285 tonnes/day. It is opined that existing system of segregated garbage collection is satisfactory; however more prompt services are required at public places.
The primary aim of present research investigation is concerned on the physico-chemical properties and Rotifera diversity of Bhima River water at Katti Sanghavi and also to find out its suitability for the proper utilization of village peoples residing nearby river. This investigative analysis study is undertaken to assess the quality of water by means of analysis of physico-chemical and Rotifera diversity. In aquatic ecosystem, the analysis of physico-chemical parameters plays a key role in determining the species richness, density, diversity and occurrence of different aquatic organisms. Due to extreme use of fertilizers and pesticides in agricultural land and entry of domestic wastes from cities into the river water body are responsible for deterioration of quality of water. Hence, it is utmost essential to analyze the water quality at frequent interval of time. Therefore, during the investigative research period of every month the water samples were collected from different predestined sampling stations of Bhima River at Katti Sanghavi Bridge during the period of March 2019 to February 2020. Total 12 physico-chemical parameters such as atmospheric temperature (26oC to 38oC), water temperature (23oC to 32oC), hydrogen ion-concentration (7.2 to 8.3), total dissolved solids (193 mg/L to 488 mg/L), dissolved oxygen (4.3 mg/L to 8.9 mg/L), free carbon dioxide (0.7 mg/L to 2.1 mg/L), biological oxygen demand (3.0 mg/L to 7.8 mg/L), total alkalinity (180 mg/L to 380 mg/L), total hardness (173 mg/L to 396 mg/L), calcium (79 mg/L to 171 mg/L), magnesium (40 mg/L to 80 mg/L) and chloride (58 mg/L to 128 mg/L) of water were investigated and found that all the values were within the permissible limit and further it is concluded that the Bhima river water at Katti Sanghavi Bridge is fit for utilization of domestic and other purposes. During the study period total 17 Rotifera species were recorded. The present study data results revealed that the Bhima River water from selected sites is within permissible limit and moderately eutrophicated.
This study was conducted to investigate ‘Seasonal diversity and abundance of predatory arthropods (Insect pests and Spiders) in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields of Nalgonda district, Telangana state, India’ at farmers fields of Palem village, Nakrekal mandal, Nalgonda district, Telangana state, India. Sweep net and hand-picking methods were used for the collection of predatory arthropods (Predatory insects and spiders) on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants. Predatory arthropod species were identified with the help of the Guide on Cotton Pests and Predators by RARS, PJTSAU Warangal and Literature. During the study period, 09 predatory insects and 02 spiders on Bt cotton and 11 predatory insects and 03 spiders on non-Bt cotton were observed, which belonged to 12 different insect families and 03 spider families in 07 different orders. The seasonal abundance was lower in both Bt and non-Bt crops in the month of July 2019; gradually increased from July 2019 to November 2019 and then decreased from December 2019 to January 2020 on both Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton fields We noticed small differences in diversity and abundance of predatory arthropods between non-Bt and Bt during the 2019-2020 cotton season. We found 2 species of predatory arthropods in July, 6 species in August, 9 species in September, 10 species in October, 11 species in November, 7 species in December and 9 species in January on Bt cotton and 2 species in July, 5 species in August, 10 species in September, 12 species in October, 12 species in November, 9 species in December and 9 species in January on non-Bt cotton fields during the 2019-2020 cotton cropping year. We found a lower number of species in Bt cotton in comparison to non-Bt cotton fields. Ecological indexes were calculated for analysis of community structure of predatory arthropods.
The observation showed the existence of 17 species of zooplankton comprising of 12 species of rotifer, 3 species of cladocera and 2 species of copepod in a perennial pond of Tripura. During the two years study periods, highest density of rotifer (321 ind/l) recorded in the winter season and lowest density (79 ind/l) in summer while highest density of cladocera (153 ind/l) recorded in the summer and lowest density (43ind/l) in monsoon season and similar trend of seasonal succession in terms of density were also showed in the copepod fauna (117 ind/l in summer; 31 ind/l in monsoon) as that of cladoceran fauna. The percentage composition of different families under which different zooplankton species exist was recorded as well as percentage composition of each zooplankton species was also recorded. Physico-chemical factors of the studied perennial pond were also recorded. The simple correlation coefficient showed water temperature (r = - 0.9531, P<0.01) has negative and significant correlation with the zooplankton density. However, the stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that water temperature (P<0.01), dissolved oxygen (P<0.05), bicarbonate alkalinity (P<0.01), dissolved organic matter (P<0.01), phosphate phosphorus (P<0.05) have significant impact on the density of zooplankton in the studied pond. The study infers that although the different groups of zooplankton co-exist in the same water body, their density varies with different seasons of the year and presumably aquatic macrophyte substrata and suitable range of the abiotic factors (physico-chemical) conjointly act for the densities of zooplankton of the studied perennial pond.
Present work was done from1stJanuary to 30th September 2021 Fish samples were collected from different localities like Khadakdeoa Kd., Sarola, Waghulkheda and Chinchkheda of Hivra Reservoir from Jalgaon District of Hivara Dam of North Maharashtraregion. Fisheries play an important role in the economy of country. Fishes are having high economic, food, nutritive, medicinal, and aesthetic value. There is vast biodiversity of fish all over the world and thus it’s critical to study it at a time. Therefore the present survey is aimed to study fish biodiversity at minute level. During the survey at Hivara (Khadakdeola) Dam total ten species of fishes belonging to six different families are found. This work will be helpful to fishermen and scientists to know about the biodiversity of fishes found locally in the dam which can also help the fish farmers to select the exact varieties of fish species for the culture in order to get more yield.
Aim: Habitat abundance relationships suggest that House crows are highly dependent on anthropogenic food sources. Thus urban locality is a prime preference as habitat by House crow. It is now well established that house crow is an invasive species and may be threat to local bird fauna. Over population may lead to unhygienic condition and economic damages. On the other hand there are Reports from some part of India where it is claimed that house crows are less in number to meet their cultural/religious demand. It is necessary for us to know how this bird utilizes feeding resources around us that is important for proper population management of this invasive bird species. Present study was conducted in urban locality of city Prayagraj, having plenty of feeding opportunities for House crows to know feeding strategies adopted by House crow.
Methodology: Focal animal sampling method has been adapted to record feeding behavior of House crow. Total 41 feeding sites were visited to calculate number of House crows by following total count method with the use of available instruments. Two types of feeding sites have been identified namely regular feeding site and irregular feeding site. Apart from this, six land use categories i.e. residential area, public park/roadside, meat shop/ fish market, commercial area, municipal dumping site and cultural/religious place were observed to work out feeding resource utilization strategies adopted by House crow. Appropriate statistical tests have been applied in this regard.
Results: Significant difference has been found between total number of regular and irregular feeding sites (Calculated χ2 4.60 < critical χ2 3.84 p= .031). There was no significant difference in number of feeding sites among land use categories (Calculated χ2 4.72 < critical χ2 11.07 p= .448). Likewise no significant difference have been found in number of regular (Calculated χ2 2.72 < critical χ2 5.99 p= .256) and irregular (Calculated χ2 6.79< critical χ2 9.48 p= .147) feeding sites among land use categories. Significantly more House crow feed on regular feeding sites in comparison to irregular feeding sites (calculated t-value 7.084 >critical t-value 2.022 p < .0001).Significant difference has been found among number of house crow feeding under different land use categories(calculated F-value 4.828 > critical F- value 2.485 p .0018). No significant correlation has been observed among number of feeding sites in each land use categories and number of house crow feeing on them ( calculated r- value 0.069 < critical r- value 0.811 p .895). Significant correlation has been observed between amount of food available in different land use categories and number of House crows feeding on them(calculated r-value 0.995> critical r- value 0.811 p .002). No positive correlation has been observed between number of feeding sites and amount of food available in each land use category (calculated r- value 0.152 < critical r-value 0.811 p .773).
Conclusion: It was concluded that in present circumstances House crows mostly relay on dumping and cultural religious places for feeding purpose and hence for survival. Present work will help in proper population management of this environmental/cultural important bird.
India has nearly 33 million diabetic subjects today, Prediabetes conditions like impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose are also on the rise, indicating the possibility of further rise in the prevalence of diabetes. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology and Department of Medicine Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu during the period of August 2015 - February 2016 (6months). All the subjects were between the ages of 18-65 years. 40 subjects were selected for the study and their fasting blood glucose, blood HbA1c level, lipid profile (LDL, Triglycerides, HDL, TC), blood coenzyme Q10 level, BMI were analyzed at the beginning of the study, 12th week and 24th week. Adverse events were also noted in each visit to meet the peoples. The study showed, the Metformin with Coenzyme Q1O group, reduction in fasting blood glucose along with HbAlc level at the end of treatment period. In conclusion, coenzyme QlO along with Metformin was well-tolerated by patients with type 2 Diabetes Mell it us. With more advanced therapy for Diabetes evolving, this therapy with biguanide and coenzyme QlO, assures effective in long-term glycemic control and can provide additional benefits not only in Diabetes but as antioxidant in other diseases too.
The correct identification of a species is relevant. The present work was focused on description of Mystus dibrugarensis i.e. a highly localized fish species found in the upper Brahmaputra basin by using morphometric and meristic measurements. It belongs to the Bagridae family, distinctly differs from the other native variety of Mystus in the presence of two black spots; one at the base of the operculum and another spot at the caudal peduncle region. A distinct black mid lateral line connects the two spots. The caudal fin is forked and the upper lobe is longer and pointed than the lower lobe. Male possesses a distinct genital papilla whereas the female has a round genital opening in front of the anal fin.
The analgesic activity of alcoholic extract of Cinnamomum verum bark was evaluated by injecting the hind paw with formalin and then observing the animal for nociceptive conduct in the procedure of licking and biting the limb. It has steadily remained found that two separate stages of licking and biting occur. Phase 1, a short but immediate response lasting the first 5min after the hind paw is injected; phase 2, a prolonged response starting at approximately minute11and peaking between 15 to 30min,and subsiding by 50min after the injection. Among phases 1 and 2, there is an recurrent period from minute 6 to minute 10 where little nociceptive conduct is observed. It is the orized that the two different phases represent two qualitatively distinct types of pain. Phase l is a direct stimulation of the nerve by the formalin and phase 2 is an inflammatory reaction or dorsal horn neurons induced pain.
This paper deals with preliminary study of avifauna in and around the Gulbarga fort area, Kalaburagi, Karnataka, India. The study area is located in the Northern part of the state and lies between 76°.04′ and 77°.42 east longitude, and 17°.12′ and 17°.46′ North latitude and is placed 45 meters above the mean sea level. As the selected study area of Kalaburagi presents a number of lentic water bodies, which support a large diversity of avifauna. Study was undertaken for duration of one year from March 2019 to March 2020. The objective of the study included evaluation of species composition, abundance, species richness and distribution of avifauna in the selected study area. Wetlands around the fort area provides habitat for many types of avifaunal species which are the one of the significant indicators of the health of ecosystem. We hypothesized that large pond (moat) around the Gulbarga fort area would support a greater abundance, richness, and diversity of birds by providing grounds for feeding, breeding and nesting for many birds. Line and point transect technique method were used for the survey purpose. The field survey was made to assess avian faunal diversity by conducting weekly observations. A total of 42 species of birds belonging to 14 orders and 26 families were recorded. Among the birds recorded in this study, 16 species were Omnivorous, 9 Carnivorous, 7 Insectivorous, 4 Piscivorous, 2 Frugivorous, 2 Granivorous, 2 Herbivorous. However, pond around the fort area is in degrading condition due to the negligence of local people residing at the edge and urban conditions near to the pond. Hence, it is essential that appropriate conservation measures be taken for its successful conservation and innovations.
Molluscs are an important element in the environment and used as food by various animals. Nowadays biodiversity is declining tremendously by pollution, mainly aquatic pollution, natural disaster and various human interference in an environment. It’s a time and immense need to conserve biodiversity on earth. Present paper deals with the exploration of molluscan diversity from Songir area of Dhule district. The present work was carried out during June 2018 to August 2019 to observe the land and freshwater molluscs from forest, mountains, agricultural lands, gardens, river, ponds, lakes and roadside vegetations in the study area. Fifteen species of molluscs were recorded of which Seven species from terrestrial moist habitat whereas eight species are from freshwater habitat. The land molluscs are from five families includes five snails and one slug and freshwater snails are from four families.
Keoladeo National Park is locally known as Ghana which is located 1 km south east of Bharatpur town. It is in Rajasthan state. It is the one of the most captivating and excellent wetland reserve. This reserve having grasslands, woodlands , swamplands and wetlands which attracts number of birds. In the present study month wise presence of birds in park and thier breeding status is studied. Keoladeo National Park is in Bharatpur district. The study is carried for 12 months i.e. from the period of January-2017 to December-2017. On an average montly visits, bird watching survey were conducted at study site during the study period. Total 77 species of birds their presence in park and breeding status have been recorded from the study site. Birds were categorized as resident and winter visitor. It is concluded that varieties of birds are noticed in all season and in the winter season maximum species of birds were recorded.
Fenvalerate is a pyrethroid insecticide that is employed in agriculture to combat a variety of pests. The goal of this study was to see how fenvalerate affected various organs of Channa punctata. Light microscopy was used to examine the histology of fenvalerate, a synthetic insecticide, onto the kidney, liver, muscle cells, and skeletal muscle tissues of Channa punctata, an Indian large carp species. For 10 days, the fish were subjected to sub-lethal quantities of fenvalerate,(0.6 ppb and 0.3 ppb). The tissues in the control group were normal. Vacuolization (V) was Observed in most tubules, renal tubule damage (DRT), Glomerular atrophy (GA), Increased Bowman's space (IBS), necrosis (N), and Pycknotic Nuclei (PN), these degenerative variations were seen in the kidney of pesticide-treated fish. Several alterations were found in the skeletal muscle of fish treated with pesticides. The pathological outcomes include vacuolar degeneration in muscle fiber, splitting in muscle fiber, degeneration in muscle fiber were seen.
The current study demonstrates its toxicity concerning the organ damage caused by fenvalerate. Fenvalerate concentrations in natural conditions were lower than those employed in this investigation, but continued use of the pesticide may lead to the concentrations used in the experiment.
The present investigation deals with the seasonal variation on physico-chemical parameters of Yamuna river at Makhdumpur in different seasons i.e. monsoon, winter and summer. Month wise different physico-chemical parameters such as water temperature, transparency, pH, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, chloride content, silicate, sulphate, carbonate alkalinity, bicarbonate alkalinity, total hardness, total nitrogen, phosphate content, biological oxygen demand and gross primary productivity were assessed and finally computed in season wise. Water temperature (28.8°C), transparency (45.4 cm), FCO2 (11.82 mg/L), bicarbonate alkalinity (222 mg/L), total hardness (134.2 mg/L), sulphate (32.5 mg/L), chloride content ( 97.6 mg/L), and BOD (4.0 mg/L) were observed maximum during summer. The dissolved oxygen (8.1 mg/L), pH (7.7), carbonate alkalinity (17.7 mg/L) and GPP (1.62 mgC/L/hr.) were estimated maximum during winter season. Silicate (28.82 mg/L) and phosphate content (0.60 mg/L) showed maxima during monsoon season. The water was little bit alkaline in nature calcium rich and displayed the dominancy of bicarbonate type alkalinity.
The Ashtamudi lake, a Ramsar site on the south west coast of Kerala located in Kollam district is the second largest among the thirty estuaries in Kerala. Thekkumbhagam, one among the eight creeks of Ashtamudi lake is a cradle for the post larvae of various fishes, clams, prawns, oysters that provides livelihood to thousands of people around the creek. The main objective of the present work is to remind the need for conservation of the biodiversity of this creek focusing on the planktonic resources that is the inevitable part of the aquatic biodiversity and its sustenance and to prevent its degradation to a mere sewage drain by thoughtless anthropogenic activities. The proper knowledge of planktons is essential as it forms a reliable tool for bio-monitoring and to maintain the sustainable fishery of the creek. The phytoplanktons collected from Thekkumbhagham creek from 2008-2010 were grouped under Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Dinoflagllates, Bacillariophyceae. Zooplankton consists of Protozoa, Cladocerans, Copepods, Rotifers, Crustacean larvae, Ostracods, Molluscs, Bryozoa. The various physico-chemical parameters analysed in the present investigation were air temperature, water temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, carbon dioxide, transparency, biological oxygen demand and nutrients such as nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and silicate that exhibited a definite seasonal pattern. From the results it was clear that various physico-chemical characters were closely related to the availability of different types of plankton’s groups. Thus, the correlation analysis revealed the dependence of each plankton group with the hydrographical parameters of the Thekkumbhagam creek. Various types of pollution indicating algae were also found. From the present study a knowledge regarding the plankton abundance and its relationship with the the seasonal variations of the Thekkumbhagam creek will be helpful in planning and successful fishery management. In short the present study aims at providing useful data in the conservation of the economic, cultural, social, aesthetic, spiritual values and all other benefits of this creek there by focusing the mitigation of pollution affecting this creek.
Current study deals with the in vitro antioxidant of gold nanoparticles using aqueous extract of Curucuma longa. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging assay, Nitric oxide radical scavenging and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. DPPH radical scavenging activity, Nitric oxide radical scavenging and Hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay of synthesized gold nanoparticles increased in a dose dependent manner as compared to Curcuma longa and ascorbic acid the standard reference used. This result confirmed that Curcuma longa is a potential biomaterial for synthesizing gold nanoparticles which can be exploited for its antioxidant activity.
Backgrounds: In recent decades, environmental pollution has occurred from the rapid increase in anthropogenic activities, notably in the aquatic ecosystem. Marine organisms can be subjected to oxidative stress under a variety of severe environmental conditions.
Aim of the Works: The aim of this study is to use a large number of biomarkers to discover individual and unique patterns of Perna viridis responses to naphthalene, in order to better understand the changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence that occur in the bivalve P. viridis after exposure to naphthalene.
Methodology: The mussels were exposed to naphthalene for 14 days in order to evaluate changes in oxidative stress and antioxidant defence. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and Carbonyls protein (CP) levels were measured for oxidative stress indicators. The antioxidant defence enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured as part of the research.
Results: The haemolymph contains significantly higher carbonyls protein and lipid peroxidation following 14 days of naphthalene exposure. A series of antioxidant defence enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were modulated in the haemolymph of mussels exposed to very low levels of naphthalene over 14 days. The activities of antioxidant defense were altered when exposed to naphthalene.
Conclusions: In mussels exposed to naphthalene, the current study discovered a substantial relationship between oxidative stress and antioxidant defences. Overall, the findings suggest that haemolypmh is the most susceptible component to oxidative damage, meaning that antioxidant enzyme activities in P. viridis might be used as a bioindicator of organic pollution exposure.
Presented work had done from 1st August 2020 to 30th February 2021. The study was conducted to investigation of status of soil nematode communities in pomegranate crops in Rahata & around villages. The fertility of soil depends on the concentration of N, P, K organic and inorganic material and water conductivity. The physiochemical parameter such as moisture content specific gravity, nitrogen as a fertilizer required for the growth of plant and potassium is used for growth of root in plants. Nematode occurs in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem, some adapting a parasitic habit invertebrates, invertebrates and plants.
Nematode diversity shows their interaction with plant, plants pathogens and other organism. They are involved in energy Lux, carbon minerlations and other nutrients cycle and as plant parasite. In the present investigation the recorded nematodes species are Meloidogy incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, Pratylenchus projectus, P. scribneri, P. penetrans, P. hexincisus, Heterodera glycans, Dityl4enchus dipsaci. From these most dominant species are M. incognita, M. javanica found in all pomogrante crops.
Hyperglycemia or high blood glucose means there is too much glucose in blood because the body lacks enough insulin. Plants and plants based herbal products have been active to prevent numerous diseases since very very long ago.Out of plants Syzigium cumuni and Carica papaya from Myrtaceae and Caricaceae family respectively, are perennial usually unbranched. Both plants have a meliorative role against several human diseases due to presence of very rich source of minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. This study was designed to induce hyperglycemia by alloxan and to investigate the comparative effect of Syzigium cumuni and Carica papaya on reproductive physiology of hyperglycemic Mus musculus with respect to male. Mice were grouped as Group I, Group II, Group III and Group IV. Group II were made hyperglycemic by instigating alloxan (450 mg/kg bw) and then were given stipulated doses of (200 mg/kg bw) Syzigium cumuni seed powder and Carica papaya leaves extract to Group III and Group IV respectively for 21days.Mice were sacrificed and cauda epididymis were incised ,put into 9:1 suspension and various sperm parameters were observed and compared. The results of the study suggest that S. cumuni seed powder and Carica papaya leaves extract contain almost similar phytoconstituents which can be used as a supplementary or alternative herbal remedy for the treatment of hyperglycemia and its related complications. Further investgations involving constituents of the S. cumuni seed powder and Carica papaya leaves extract can be a good platform for the development of a new horizon for antihyperglycemic drugs.
The efficacy of Hylocereus undatus fruits supplementation in hematological profile against paracetamol intoxicated freshwater fish Labeo rohita juvenile was investigated. Possible effects of Hylocereus undatus fruits were observed in a freshwater fish Labeo rohita Juveniles of test fish were treated with paracetamol and analysis in Hematological parameters including haemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) were analysed. The results indicated that paracetamol treated fish had drastic hematological changes in their blood, revealing paracetamol toxicity. On supplementation of Hylocereus undatus fruits to paracetamol treated group restored the hematological parameters indicated the Hylocereus undatus fruit nullified the toxicity of paracetamol.
The Population dynamics of Aleurodicus dispersus has dependent upon abiotic factors. Weather parameters like maximum temperature, minimum temperature, maximum relative humidity, minimum relative humidity, and rainfall were played limiting factors for the buildup of the whitefly population. Change in climatic conditions has a significant impact on the natural environment, regardless of their primordial cause. To understand the relationship between the incidences of pests with weather factors, seasonal incidence studies were conducted at fortnight intervals from January 2016 to December 2018. Correlation studies of the seasonal incidence of A. dispersus, and weather factors will help in the development of a prediction model. The relationship between A. disperses and abiotic factors separately studied through simple linear regression. Multiple linear regressions were carried out for comparing abiotic factors with A. disperses. By using coefficient correlation the significant value of ‘P’ Graph were observed and predicted value drawn by using Y equation. In initiation of winter season population of A. disperse was increases. During summer season population of whitefly remains moderate and during rainy season whiteflies population was observed in less number. This observation is helpful for giving advance forewarning information to the farmers to remain in preparedness for suppressing the pest populations with eco-friendly measures bringing sustainable yields.
Surveillance study is one of the biomonitoring tool that is framed to furnish on-the-spot information which helps in improvising better management practices. In this case, the survey focused in the field of inland shrimp aquaculture which was accomplished using a questionnaire. In this case, a questionnaire is a useful tool for assessing the status of small-scale aquaculture of a study location. A one-to-one survey was done as a part of the scientific research performed in the year 2019. This research study was done to monitor the aquaculture practices of the Penaeus vannamei farms in selected villages of Thiruvallur district. However, the questionnaire was designed with ten basic target questions based on the necessity of information. Thus, this provided detailed information about the shrimp farms and their farmers, culturing practices, problems faced during the production phase
Liguasan Marsh is the largest swamp and marsh area in south-central Mindanao and supports various fishery resources. This study examined the gut content of 8 common freshwater fishes in the Liguasan marsh to clarify their feeding habits. The eight species belong to seven families: Gobiidae, Cyprinidae, Anabantidae, Osphronemidae, Clariidae, Channidae, Cichlidae. Gut content analysis based on laboratory results showed that the fish comprised five feeding guilds (algae, fish, crustaceans, detritus, and mollusks). Of these, algal feeders were most abundantly represented. On the other hand, detritus and mollusk feeders were represented by only one species.
The preservative role of the methanolic maceratives of pre-pupal stages of black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (MMPPSBSF) was assessed against the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced changes in biochemical parameters in blood of rats. Administration of DMBA in the experimental animals (rat, Rattus norwegicus L.) caused decrease in levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin; elevation of urea, uric acid and creatinine levels and elevation of the velocity of biochemical reactions catalysed by the enzyme Asparate-Aminotransferase (AST); enzyme Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and enzyme Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Treating the experimental animals (rat, Rattus norwegicus L.) with Methanol Extractives of Pre-pupal Stages of Black Soldier Fly (MEPSBSF) in present attempt was found to cause a significant increase in the levels of total proteins, albumin and globulin in the serum. Methanol Extractives of Pre-pupal Stages of Black Soldier Fly (MEPSBSF) thus, providing protection through maintenance of level of the total proteins, albumin and globulin in the serum. Use of Methanol Extractives of Pre-pupal Stages of Black Soldier Fly (MEPSBSF) may open a new avenue to control the damages caused by the carcinogens.
Feedstuffs derived from soybean have been used predominantly for many years in diet formulations for the aquacultural production of numerous fish species. The aim of the research was conducted to determine the nutritional indices of Indian Major Carp Catla catla, fingerlings for period of 60 days. In the present study to investigate the effects of soya bean on growth performance and survival in common carp (Catla catla). Soya bean was incorporated into diets at concentrations of 1%, 2%, or 3%. The control diet contained no supplement. 3% Soybean supplementation produced the best and statistically significant (p<0.05) weight gain. In general, Soybean produced better nutritional indices than 1% and 2% supplementation. The present investigation shows that incorporation of Soybean in diets for common carp results in increased growth rate. Soybean diet was most effective in stimulating fish growth.
Leopards are living in very close proximity with humans in agro-pastoral landscapes in India as their diet patterns also reflected their dependence on domestic animals as well as wild animals present in the landscape. The agro-pastoral landscapes give good cover to leopards to hide because of annual cropping system and pastoralism being one the important source of livelihood for the people. We studied the diet patterns of leopards (Panthera pardus) in the crop lands of Niphad in Nashik district Maharashtra, India. The total area of Niphad is 1,048.63 sq.km with population density of 470 per sq.km. We analyzed 30 scats of leopards. From analysis it was found that leopards diet consists of 11 different species of wild and domestic prey. The wild prey consists of small Indian civet Viverricula indica, grey mongoose Herpestes edwardsi, langur Semnopithecus sp., common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, field rat Rattus rattus, Indian fox Vulpes bengalensis, small Indian mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus and domestic prey consists of dog Canis lupus familiaris, cow Bos Taurus, domestic caft Felis catus, goat Capra aegagrus hircus and birds.
The goal of this study was to collect and identify a Mystus vittatus parasite in order to estimate the frequency of helminth infection from fresh water sources in Lucknow. The percentage of prevalence, mean intensity, abundance, and index of infestation of helminth parasites in the Mystus vittatus over various months, seasons, and length groups are summarized in this article. From January to December 2018, a total of 355 fish were checked on a regular basis. Summer (April-June), rainy (July-September), winter (October-January), and spring (Feb- March) were the four seasons studied. Length of host fish were categorized into two ranges, 5-10 cm. and 10.1-15 cm.Among the 355 hosts, 173 were found to be infested with 367 parasites. The highest intensity of Masenia collata was in January and April and the lowest in July. The highest and lowest intensity was in summer and rainy seasons, respectively. The prevalence was highest in large size group of fishes, where the lowest prevalence was found in small group of fishes. Intensity was highest in small length fishes.
The poaceae family includes the cultivated species "Oryza sativa". Poaceae is the 5th largest family, with 10,000 species and at least 600 genera, and is without a doubt the most important family in terms of food production. Oryza sativa is one of the most nutritious crops, but farmers continue to struggle with seed storage. A storage experiment was carried out in the current study to determine the impact of varying seed preparations, storage containers, and storage times on seed quality parameters of Oryza sativa at Govt. Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Lucknow provided fresh picked paddy seeds of the variety " PADMA". Seed treated with Castor oil (5ml/kg), Captan (3g/kg), Vitavex (3g/kg), and Control (Untreated) before being stored in Cloth bags and Polybags for 3-9 months under ambient conditions.
Homology modeling is a significant computational procedure, in the field of structural biology. It is used for the determination of 3D structure of proteins. It practices accessible high-resolution protein constructions to develop a model of similar, but unidentified, structure. The purpose of that study was to explain the homology modeling as well as docking for the mycobacterium tuberculosis KU-protein (Rv0937) with diverse DNA polymerase I as ligands by with the help of CLUSPRO. KU-protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an extremely conserved DNA binding protein. KU-protein sequence was selected as target molecule and further the template having determined identity and length near to the template was selected besides the 3D structure of the template(3com) was taken from the PDB (3com.pdb) and based on the template structure of the backbone of the target (mku) was formed and the target molecule was exhibited. The authentication of the protein modeled (mkutb) was done through the PROCHECK and protein-protein docking is completed by CLUSPRO, characterizes the first complete lyautomatic, web-based database for the docking of protein constructions and in silico screening and further to understand the structural basis of ligand binding.
The health ramifications of rising aluminium concentration in the humans’ body have been a major source of worry. The primary source of aluminium metal for humans is thought to be aluminium utensils. Dani Dordevic and co-workers  measured the aluminum content by AAS and ICP/MS methods. In their study they observed the highest aluminum increase in the samples of marinated Salmo salar (41.86 ± 0.56 mg/kg), Scomber scombrus (49.34 ± 0.44 mg/kg), and duck breast (117.26 ± 1.37 g/kg). Their research was also supported by the survey that consisted of 784 respondents with different sociodemographic characteristics. The study clearly showed the occurrence of aluminum contamination of food when it is prepared by baking in aluminum foil. The leaching of aluminium from aluminium utensils in various food solutions was investigated in our study. From the local market, three aluminium kitchenware of various origins were picked. To make diverse meal solutions, different veggies (spinach, cabbage, and brinjals) were used. Weight loss assessment and SEM were employed as analysis methodologies. The findings clearly show that metal leaching from aluminium utensils during the cooking operation of each vegetable contributed significantly to the daily human intake of aluminium. After the cooking process, the level of leaching in the meal solution was determined to be high. The values obtained, per the World Health Organization (WHO), are all above their limits, which could result in a variety of health problems.
Pesticides and heavy metals are introduced in soil by various anthropogenic activities. Farmers use pesticides for agriculture purposes. Electronic waste has a high content of heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals and pesticides have an adverse effect on soil fauna. Earthworm, which is one of the important animals that play a vital role in increasing soil fertility and important component of a food chain, is adversely affected. In this paper, we studied the effect of heavy metals, a pesticide and a herbicide on earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Behavioural and morphological changes were studied. Earthworms were treated with acute doses of heavy metals, a pesticide and a herbicide to see their mortality and change in behaviour. Heavy metals induced behavioural changes very early than the pesticide and the insecticide. There was mortality reported in case of heavy metals but no mortality was induced by the selected insecticide and pesticide.
Among all the wild birds, house sparrows are unique in their close association with humans. Sparrows have successfully adapted to the human habitation accustomed to the available food and nesting sites. Earlier studies have proposed an inconsistency in the sparrow population in various habitats during the last decade. To identify the reason for the fluctuation in number of sparrows, an intricate study is needed on the factors responsible for the presence of house sparrows in a habitat. Previous studies have proposed the importance of nesting sites in the distribution and diversity of house sparrows. In this context, the present study aims at finding the association of the availability of nesting sites with the incidence of the house sparrow in Madurai district in the state of Tamilnadu. The survey was conducted for a period of 3 months, from August 2020 - October 2020, in 205 randomly selected sites in all the 13 blocks of Madurai District using the line transect method. Among the 205 sites observed, the presence of house sparrow was confirmed in 170 sites. The possible nesting sites were digitally documented. A high incidence of house sparrows was observed in Madurai west (703) and Melur (658), while the least population density was noted in Kottampatti (150) and Vadipatti (147) blocks of Madurai district. Six nesting sites were commonly identified which include eaves of buildings, ventilation holes, unused holes in buildings, unused pipes, thatched roofs, and climbers/veins on the walls of buildings. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a positive correlation (R = 0.9) between the prevalence of house sparrows and the availability of various nesting sites. The eaves of the buildings and the ventilation holes were found to be the most preferred nesting sites. The uncommon nesting sites were pipes and climbers/veins. House sparrows exhibit a high degree of adaptability and plasticity in their nesting behaviour to achieve reproductive success.
Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has become an essential part of everyday life. Its availability and widespread use have enabled much of the global population to benefit from higher living standards. However, the way in which we produce, consume, and dispose of e-waste is unsustainable. Slow adoption of collection and recycling of e-waste results in consumption of resources, emission of greenhouse gases and release of toxic substances. This review focuses on e-waste with respect to: (1) definition, synonyms and factors responsible; (2) global scenario and status of e-waste in India; (3) sources and categories; (4) chemical composition; (5) impact caused by informal recycling on environment and human health and (6) sustainable management of e-waste. Results of the review reveal that reducing, reusing, refurbishing, recovering, recycling, developing policy recommendations and administer trainings for key stakeholder groups is the current solution to minimize the quantities and flows of e-waste.
Hyper spectral imaging is gaining importance in aquaculture mainly in food quality assessment, by integrating both spectroscopic and imaging techniques in one system, hyperspectral imaging can generate a spatial map of spectral variation. The hyperspectral imaging can be used in aquaculture for the detection of food fraudness, surumi assessment, color distribution, pathogen detection in fillets, etc. In this article I have given two applications for the hyperspectral imaging use in fish/ shellfish quality assessment.