Original Research Article

PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND STUDY OF THE BIOLOGICAL SCREENING OF THE AU (III) COMPLEX WITH NOVEL (AZO -SCHIFF BASE) LIGAND

J. J. EMMAN, LAYLA ALI MOHAMMED, KHALIDA KADHIM ABBAS

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 1-15

The Aim: Biological studies carried out of new gold complexes after its preparation.

Place and Duration of Study: All preparations were carried out in college of education, chemistry lab between (Jan 2021 to May 2022).

Study Design: New azo –Schiff base ligand 2-amino-3-(2-((3-((2-hydroxy-4-sulfamoylphenyl)imino)-1,5- dimethyl- 2-phenyl- 2,3-dihydro- 1H-pyrazol-4-yl) diazenyl) -1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid with chelate complexes of Co(II),Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) , Hg(II) and Au(III) were prepared with metal salts in ethanol a solvent in 1:1 ratio (metal : ligand) . The azo-Schiff base ligand has been synthesized from condensation of 2-amino-3- (2-((3-( (2 -hydroxy- 4-sulfamoylphenyl) imino)- 1,5-dimethyl -2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)diazenyl)-1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoic acid with 4-amino-3-hydroxybenzenesulfonamide.

Methodology: The prepared azo Schiff ligand and its metal complexes where checked by different spectral technique as, FT-IR ,C.H.N elemental analyses , Atomic absorption, magnetic moment measurements, molar conductance, UV-vis, ,1H-NMR and mass spectra studies.

Results: The data show that the complexes have the composition of 1:1[M:L] chelates type and octahedral geometry with each of Co(II), Ni(II),Cu(II),Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) ions, except for Au(III) ion which has square planer geometry. All complexes that non electrolytes and no conductive species but Au(III) complex is 1:2 electrolyte nature. This can support the electrolytic nature of the metal complex.

Conclusion: Biological activity studies of the ligand and their metal complexes against several organisms, bacteria Gram positive G(+ve)staphylococcus aureus and bacteria Gram negative G (- ve)Escherichia coli, In addition to fungi like Aspergillus Niger, and Aspergillus flavus , are reported. Compounds exhibited the high activity on the growth of all types microorganisms in this study . The results showed the highest inhibitory effect for gold the complex. The effect of biological screening of the gold complex on human colon cancer cell line HT- 29 was investigated. The gold complex was observed to have the highest inhibitory effect.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF THE MATURATION TIME OF ABATTOIR-SOURCED WATER BUFFALO (Bubalus bubalis) OOCYTES FERTILIZED In vitro

IVAN ISAIAS AVALOS ROSARIO, OSCAR ENRIQUE ZARATE GUEVARA, MICHAEL KJELLAND, LUZ TERESA ESPÍN ITURBE, BELISARIO DOMÍNGUEZ MANCERA, MANUEL BARRIENTOS MORALES

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 30-36

The purpose of this study was to compare the maturation, cellular division, and blastocyst production rates of water buffalo oocytes at 18, 21 and 24 hours of incubation. These oocytes were obtained through follicular puncture, assessed, and matured in BO-IVM medium at 38.5°C, and with a 5% of CO2, at 18 (n=31), 21 (n=34) and 24 hours (n=33). Fertilization was done in a BO-IVF medium at 38.5°C, and with a 5% of CO2, for 18 hours; the maturation rate was assessed a day after fertilization. The embryos were cultured in a BO-IVC medium, at 38.5°C, 5% CO2, 7% O2 and 88% N2, and the cell division rate and number of embryos were assessed at 5 and 7 days after fertilization, respectively. The maturation rate was comparable (P>0.05) among the three groups, while blastocyst production and cell division rates were higher in the group of oocytes matured for 18 hours (P<0.05) than in the 24-hour group. The blastocyst production and cellular division rates in oocytes that were matured for 21 hours were comparable (P>0.05) to the other groups. After 21 hours of maturation, oocytes started to degenerate, which resulted in lower cellular division and blastocyst production rates.

Original Research Article

THE EFFECTS OF LAVENDER ESSENTIAL OIL AND GALLIC ACID PRE-TREATMENT ON THE NEUROCOGNITIVE ASSESSMENT OF POST-STROKE WISTAR RATS

CHEBBAH FELLA, DJOUINI AMINA, AIDAOUI LATIFA, LAHMANES NARIMENE, RETEM CHAHIRA, SMILI CHAIMA, BAIRI ABDELMADJID

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 37-47

Stroke is a multifactorial, fatal and often disabling neurodegenerative disease in which neurons are degenerated leading to cognitive and muscular problems, there is no curative treatment for this disease; the drugs available on the market offer symptomatic relief with some improvement of daily functions. Thus, phytochemicals with multifactorial efficacy may be promising substances for the treatment of cerebral ischemia and its recurrences that would have been prevented by various plants and plant products. The aim of our study is to evaluate the effect of lavender oil and gallic acid administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, respectively, prior to stroke induction by middle cerebral artery occlusion in Wistar rats. The aim is to evaluate their effects on post-stroke sequelae, such as anxiety, exploration and memory (spatial and working), which were quantified and compared between: the control, non- pretreated stroke and pretreated stroke batches. The results indicate a better cognitive-motor recovery on an anxious and exploratory level in the rats pretreated with GA and LEO, while memory capacities are superior in the latter compared to the non-pretreated stroke group. These findings reveal and support the neuroprotective effect of gallic acid and lavender essential oil taken separately or in combination.

Original Research Article

POPULATION STATUS AND HABITAT ASSOCIATION OF SWAYNE’S HARTEBEEST (Alcelaphus Buselaphus Swaynei (Sclater, 1892)) IN MAZE NATIONAL PARK, SOUTHWEST ETHIOPIA

ABRAHAM TOLCHA, SIMON SHIBRU, BELAYNEH AYECHEW

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 55-62

We investigated the population status and habitat association of the endemic and emblematic Swayne’s Hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus swaynei) in Maze National Park, Southwest Ethiopia. Line-transect sampling method was used for the population estimation, while habitat association was made based on the abundance of counted individuals in each habitat. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and compared with the X2 test. The counted population of Swayne’s Hartebeest in the study period were 1456 and 1492 during wet and dry seasons, respectively showing no seasonal variation. Of these, 31.03% were adult males, 38.53% adult females, 13.95% sub-adult males, 15.96% sub-adult females, and 0.53% young. The number of adult females was higher than in the other age groups followed by adult males in both seasons. Significant differences were observed among age and sex structure during both seasons (wet season: X2= 58.423, df =3, P < 0.05; dry season: X2=534.08, df= 4, P < 0.05). The maximum group size was 36 and the minimum was 1. The ratio of adult males to adult females was 1:1.24 and 1:1.24, sub-adult males to sub-adult females were 1:1.16 and 1:1.12, adult males to sub-adult males was 1:0.36 and 1:0.56, adult females to sub-adult females was 1:0.33 and 1:0.49 in the wet and dry seasons, respectively. The male to female ratio was 1:1.22 and 1:1.19 during wet and dry seasons as well. The population trend among ten years were significantly differed (X2 = 1.71, df= 9, P < 0.05). The Swayne’s Hartebeest was distributed in three habitat types (grassland, riverine forest, and scattered trees) with significant differences (X2=1109.94, df = 3, P < 0.05). The grassland was most preferred by the animal followed by the scattered tree habitat. Managing its habitats is recommended for sustaining the population of the animal

Original Research Article

OPTIMIZATION AND ENHANCED SACCHARIFICATION OF COIR PITH BY MICROWAVE IRRADIATION USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

S. LAKSHMI SUBHA, W. ISABEL, A. S. PRISCILLA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 63-71

Coir pith is a widespread, low cost, agricultural based readily available lignocellulosic source in India. The main objective of this study is the microwave pretreatment method modified its complex structure and more accessible to the cellulose surface area for enzymatic hydrolysis of microbial communities followed by biogas production. Based on the preliminary studies, an ecofriendly microwave pretreatment method was adopted using variables like microwave intensity (MI) (500-800W), irradiation time (IT) (5-15min) and a solid, liquid ratio(S:L) (3 – 5%) were selected and optimized using central composite design, a subset of response surface methodology. The maximum cellulose saccharification (CS) and hemicellulose saccharification (HS) was observed as 42.17% and 15.02% respectively. To consider the numerical optimization, the desirability value, cost and energy efficiency, the reducing sugar yield of cellulose and hemicellulose saccharification was 43.78 and 16.9% respectively, which is higher than the observed value. The optimal condition for the maximum CS and HS was MI of 690, IT of 12.5, and S:L of 3.5. The chemical analysis of pretreated samples further confirmed that the microwave irradiation could disrupt the complex structure and increase the digestibility of coir pith. These pretreated samples were used as a sole carbon source for future biofuel production.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF NODULE AND NITROGEN PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE OF Vicia faba L. VARIETIES ON SOIL FERTILITY IN HADIYA ZONE, SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

MULATU CHERNET MADOLO

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 72-81

Nitrogen-fixing legumes are an essential component of healthy soil for long-term crop Reduced soil fertility and deterioration of agricultural production potential are major impediments to poverty alleviation in many impoverished areas. Nitrogen-fixing legumes are an important part of a healthy soil for long-term crop production systems. To improve soil fertility, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the nodulation and N fixation potential of faba bean variety legumes grown in two districts. Six composite soil samples were collected from each site at depths ranging from 0 to 30 cm. The soil samples were taken from fields that were known to grow continuous cereal crops. As a result, the experiment was carried out in the RCBD under field conditions, with three field replication soils. Before and after sowing, soil parameters were investigated. The effect of two district levels revealed that soil properties prior to planting were significant (P<0.05) for all parameters investigated. Nodule, atmospheric nitrogen, nodule color inside soil N and N, and plant dry matter content were measured for Hachalu and Dosha. The study revealed a significant value (P<0.05), and Hachalu had a higher value for the parameters studied under Duna soil than Dosha with the same parameters. Similarly, Dosha recorded higher values for the parameters studied in Lemo District soils than in Hachalu soils. As a result of this research, we can conclude that growing Hachalu on the Duna District soil and Dosha on the Lemo District soil would improve soil fertility quickly and inexpensively, thereby increasing crop productivity.

Original Research Article

INFLUENCE OF Beauveria bassiana INFECTION ON RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF SILKWORM Bombyx mori L

SYEDA FAKRUNNISA BEGUM, G. SAVITHRI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 82-87

The mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori is highly susceptible to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa. The most virulent and contagious disease is muscardine, which is caused by Beauveria bassiana. The present study is focused to understand the modulations in the oxygen consumption, fecundity, hatching percentage, unfertile eggs and dead egg percentage of silkworms i.e., in bivoltine double hybrid (CSR 2 X CSR 27 and CSR6 X CSR26) infected with Beauveria bassiana. The daily oxygen consumption of healthy batch showed a steady increase in the oxygen consumption from first day (0.615 ml of O2/hr/gm wet weight) to fifth day (0.827 ml of O2/hr/gm wet weight) in the control batch. It is higher on the second day (0.671 ml of O2/hr/gm wet weight) in the infected batch with gradual decline till the sixth day of the fifth instar (0.598 ml of O2/hr/gm wet weight) compared to healthy silkworms. Significant reduction in the number of eggs (595) and hatching percentage (75.8%) was recorded in inoculated silk moths compared to number of eggs laid (695) and hatching percentage (99.1%) in control. Significantly high percentage of unfertilized eggs (16.8%) and dead egg percentage (4.37%) was noticed in the experimental animals compared to unfertilized egg percentage (0.14%) and dead egg percentage (0.72%) in control. So, it is necessary to prevent the disease occurrence, especially during silkworm seed rearing to obtain quality commercial silkworm seed necessary for the progress of the industry. Therefore, there is a dire need to carry out research in basic and applied aspects to develop strategies to control the disease.

Review Article

THE INTERNATIONAL EVENT “DAYS OF MOUNTAIN WATER”, TETEVEN, BULGARIA, MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL RESEARCH OF MOUNTAIN SPRING WATER

IGNAT IGNATOV, ALEXANDER I. IGNATOV, MARIANA ANGELCHEVA, IVAN ANGUSHEV

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 16-29

In Bulgaria there are the following mountains – Stara Planina (Balkan), Rila, Pirin, Rodope etc. The name of the Balkan Peninsula is from the old name of the mountain Stara Planina – Balkan. In Bulagria there are 139 peaks more than 2000 m above sea level. The biggest peak in Balkan Peninsula is Mousala (2925 m). Teteven municipally has big part of Stara planina mountain with the highest peak Vezhen (2198 m).

The event “Days of mountain water” is one of a kind in Bulgaria. It takes place on 11th June and lasts for several days in the Municipality of Teteven, Bulgaria. Its beginning dates from 2010, and it is a joint undertaking between Ignat Ignatov, Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics and Municipality of Teteven, Bulgaria.

The event is connected with research of microbiological and physicochemical parameters of mountain spring waters from Municipality of Teteven, Bulgaria. The applied spectral method is „NES“. The analyses show the optimum quantity among the minerals of Calcium (Са2+), Magnesium (Mg2+), Potassium (K+), Sodium (Nа+), Manganese (Mn2+) and Zinc (Zn2+) that provide the right balance in the human body for health and longevity.

Considered is the history of the event and what is achieved by the organizers. The emphasis is on the main objectives set out by the event, and the accomplished tasks for its successful delivering. Representatives of 15 states have participated in it – Bulgaria, Austria, Germany, Switzerland, Russia, USA, France, Israel, Czech Republic, Denmark, Turkey, Greece, Hungary and Serbia.

 A survey was conducted regarding the event “Days of mountain water” in the Facebook group “Teteven Balkan”. 66 people responded on a random basis. The aim of the survey was the people to estimate how useful stay in Teteven municipality is.

In the present article are listed in more detail the natural assets of municipal area of Teteven, located in “Fore-Balkan” in the central part of Stara planina Balkan range. The possibilities are shown for development of tourism in the region, its particular characteristics and specific features. Analyzed are the water resources, the mountain water as a factor for health and longevity. The information helps for development of tourism in the region. Described are the springs and fountains of mountain water in Teteven and its surrounding municipal areas. It is conducted quantitative and qualitative analysis of the chemical and physical parameters of the springs. On six of the springs are placed information signs about the chemical composition, physical parameters and properties relating to health.

Mini Review Papers

TECHNIQUES OF PROTECTING CROPS FROM INSECT PESTS IN INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT – INTERCROPPING AND TRAP CROPPING

ARBUD LALA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Page 48-54

Intercropping and trap cropping are two cornerstone practices adopted under cultural control in preventive integrated pest management. The added crop diversity by implementing these techniques in the field level helps in supporting ecological engineering process to suppress pest population in a greener way.  The main target of these methods is the deterrence of colonization to control insect pests through intra field diversity.  However, complete knowledge about the crop and pest relationship, ecology, ways and effects of habitat manipulation should be known by analyzing the agroecosystem to get an absolute advantage prior of implementation. Thus, ongoing researches on the choice of suitability of proper crops aim in utilizing this integrated knowledge to produce a cost-effective system and lowering the pest population both together to make it a lucrative model qualitatively and quantitatively. To be specific, this paper aims to give a thorough discussion about these two techniques up to the field implementation level and the challenging regions like higher weather dependency, less effectiveness as a sole control technique etc.  are also discussed to get an idea about where we need to improve to make these working with higher efficiency.

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