Butterflies are more elegant and appealing than most insects, they are included in the order Lepidoptera. They are varied in shape, size and colour. They are found everywhere throughout the world apart from the poles. The present study aims to provide a baseline for the analysis of population status of butterfly species and their dispersion in Lucknow region. The butterfly individuals were collected randomly for twelve consecutive months, August 2021 to July 2022. The butterfly data was collected by using the photographic evidences, capture and release method as well as by visual observations. The butterfly diversity was determined to quantify the values of Shannon diversity index (H) and Simpson diversity index (D). Notably, 40 species of butterfly of 5 families and number of individuals of each species were monthly recorded during the entire period. Overall, this site showed higher diversity of butterfly species. In this region, the Shannon-Weiner diversity index (H) and Simpson diversity index (D) were measured 3.652 and 0.974, respectively. The identified butterflies in the campus are from families Nymphalidae (20 species), Pieridae (8 species), Hesperiidae (5 species), Lycanidae (4 species) and Paplionidae (3 species). The findings showed a marked diversified pattern of butterfly species. This may be attributed to the more diverse habitats in Lucknow region.
The status of healthiness of any freshwater ecosystem is basically depends on the diversity and density of zooplankton inhabiting the freshwater resources. Zooplanktons are considered as fundamental source for primary consumer in any aquatic environment. Which influence greatest scope in decisive the total productivity of freshwater body. The present study is attempted to the qualitative and quantitative distribution of zooplankton in different sites of Bisnoor Pachdhar reservoir. The study was carried out seasonally from July 2020 to June 2021. The whole assessment was divided into four major seasons viz monsoon, post monsoon, winter and summer. The compilation of the zooplankton samples and their qualitative and quantitative was through followed the standard procedures of limnological analysis. During the study period sequence of dominant groups Rotifera > Copepoda > Protozoa > Cladocera > Ostracoda was observed at dam site and mid site of all season. On another hand at tail end site major dominant group was Copepoda > Protozoa > Cladocera > Rotifera > Ostracoda noted during monsoon, post monsoon and winter and during summer the order of dominant group Copepoda > Rotifera > Protozoa > Ostracoda > Cladocera was recorded in Bisnoor Pachdhar reservoir.
Introduction: The aim of this study is to throw light on the possible protective effect of pomegranate juice (GJ) (Punica granatum L) after experimental oral administration of fungicide Thiophanate Methyl (TM) and its effects on sperm quality, of male healthy Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Fifteen healthy adult male Wistar rats were divided into 03 groups. Group 1: control, Group 2: treated with Thiophanate Methyl (TM) (150 mg / kg) and Group 3: Treated with Thiophanate Methyl + pomegranate juice (GJ) (150 mg/kg + 1.5 ml). The method used for the treatment is oral gavage daily, for 60 days.
The reproductive organs that were collected were weighed, and the epididymis and testis were used for further evaluations (count, viability, motility of spermatozoa), we also conducted histological tests for testis and epididymis.
Results: The results showed that the treatment with Thiophante Methyl induced a decrease in concentration, motility, and viability of spermatozoa while the treatment of rats with fungicide associated with the grenade juice restored the concentration and the mobility of spermatozoa.
Conclusion: Thiophanate Methyl (TM) caused structural changes in the epididymis and testes inducing a decrease in sperm quality, which would interfere with its function and contribute to infertility. On the other hand, GJ can prevent these changes by increasing the number of caudal sperm; thus, it could have an effect in improving male fertility.
A survey on the diversity and abundance of marine gastropods was undertaken along the coast of Chennai, and Chengalpattu Districts of Tamilnadu, India. The study was conducted in Ennore, Neelankarai, and Kovalam. A total of 41 species of gastropods belonging to 5 orders, 24 families, and 31 genera were identified. In all three sites, the species Murex tribulus was found to be in abundance, followed by Turritella duplicata, Turritella attenuata, and Babylonia spirata. Three genera of Bufonaria and Turritella were recorded. A total of 6 species were reported belonging to the family Muricidae. The maximum diversity of species was found to be in Ennore. It may be due to the estuarine habitat, more organic sediments, and other resources.
The present paper deal with macrozoobenthos in the spring-fed stream Datpul Gad which is an important tributary of Nayar River of Garhwal Himalaya. The stream is located in Agroda village of the Pauri district, Uttarakhand. The stream is represented by 14 macrozoobenthic genera namely Caenis, Baetis, Heptagenia, Cinygmula, Ephemerella, Epeorus,Stenopsyche, Chimarra, Philopotamid, Hydropysche, Psephanus, Atherix,Antocha and Perla. The various Physico-chemical parameters of stream viz. water temperature, current velocity, dissolved oxygen, pH, total alkalinity, and total hardness were also studied. The maximum macrozoobenthos were found in the winter season and the least in the monsoon season. The multivariate test of Principal component analysis (PCA) and Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) were also computed to study the abundance of benthic fauna and their relation with the abiotic factors. The diversity indices such as the Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Margalef index were also calculated to depict the diversity status of benthos in the stream. To represent the similarity of macrozoobenthic taxa of the stream Sorenson similarity index was calculated.
Butterflies are the most beautiful insects. They are well adapted to the landscape and react quickly to any alteration in their habitat as a result of anthropogenic activities. Thus they act as bio- indicators. Presence of rich butterfly diversity in and around Poinguinim reflects the health of its environment; however, variations in butterfly population in different areas indicate impact of human activities. Documentation of butterfly composition should be updated regularly by researchers or NGOs as it help in estimating impact of anthropogenic activities on the habitat and also crucial to fill up any voids in the process of conservation of butterfly fauna. In the present investigation , the highest number of butterfly species was recorded from Dharwatem Forest Area (DFA) Sub site -3 ( 35 species , 160 individuals) and this might be due to presence of sufficient host plants and favorable climatic conditions like humidity and temperature for the growth and development, followed by Parshuram Temple (PT) Sub site-1 (27 species,132 individuals ), Shradhanand High School (SHS) Sub site-2 (24 species, 117 individuals) with moderate human interference and least was in Tirwan Forest Area (TFA) Sub site - 4 (17 species and 45 individuals) with maximum human activities as the survey site was adjacent to the National highway.
Lambda cyhalothrin and pretilachlor is widely used to control agricultural pest but also affect non target organisms like earthworms. The present laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of Lambda cyhalothrin and Pretilachlor on biomass and histology of testis of Lampito mauritii. Lower and higher sub-lethal concentrations of Lambda cyhalothrin (T1 and T2) and Pretilachlor (T3 and T4) was mixed with soil substrate. Biomass was observed once in 10 days up to 90 days. 10 non clitellate L.mauritii was introduced into each treatment. Soil substrate without lambda cyhalothrin and pretilachlor served as control. The present study was revealed that lambda cyhalothrin and pretilachlor was highly affected the growth of L. mauritii. For histopathology study, four adult L. mauritii were introduced in to C, T1, T2, T3 and T4. After 5th, 15th and 30th day, testis was dissected out. The results reported that histology of testis was highly damaged on 5th and 15th day of experiment than 30th day.
The aquatic ecosystem was especially faced with the threat of fish biodiversity loss due to indiscriminate use of pesticides in agriculture fields. The pesticides were entered into the aquatic regimes and affected their non-target animals like fishes. The present study aims the analysis of deleterious effects like haematological and histopathological alterations in type II synthetic pyrethroid deltamethrin exposed fish Channa punctatus. In experiment, the acclimatized fishes were exposed to sub-lethal concentration, 0.026 ppm (10% of 96 h-LC50 of deltamethrin) along with a control. The blood, gills and muscle tissues of fish were sampled out after 7, 14 and 28 days of exposure intervals. The significant (p < 0.05) decrement in red blood corpuscles count, hemoglobin and hematocrit, while, augmentation in white blood corpuscles count were found in deltamethrin exposed blood of fish. The noticeable histopathological abnormalities were observed in the gills and muscle of fish Channapunctatus. The control fish showed no histological alterations. In exposed fishes, the breakdown of the epithelial cell framework with numerous changes such as epithelial lifting (EL), congestion (C) and bulging (B) observed in fish gills. Also, the anomalies like fragmentation (FS) and bursting (Br) were found in the fish muscle. The findings illustrated the prominent haematological and histopathological perturbations in deltamethrin exposed blood, gills and muscle tissues of fish. These changes can be used as indicators for monitoring the aquatic pollution and helpful in the conservation of aquatic biodiversity including fishes.
Moths are diverse group of insects belonging to the order Lepidoptera and suborder Heterocera.
They are regarded as one of the indicators of a healthy environment. This study deals with the first checklist of moth species in Madras Christian College campus, Tambaram. The study was carried out from December 2018 to September 2019. In total, 32 species of moths were identified from 29 genera falling under 9 families. The Moths identified belonged to the families of Erebidae, Noctuidae, Crambidae, Sphingidae, Eupterotidae, Uraniidae, Saturniidae, Geometridae and Tineidae of which, family Erebidae was found to be the superior family. The results of this preliminary study sheds light on the unknown biodiversity of moth, which needs to be strengthened through comprehensive future surveys. The objective of this study is to document moth diversity in Madras Christian College, Tambaram.
The Bivalvia class constitute an important molluscan class that exert its effect on human society an important food component and sentinel organism indicating environmental contamination. Accurate species identification is a prerequisite for management of aquaculture, diversity studies and for human consumption. Presence of different species of bivalves on the global markets for human consumption has given rise to several commercial frauds based on species substitution. Reliable and rapid techniques are required to identify seafood species in different products and thus prevent wilful or unintentional fraudulence. This article reviews the molecular tools used by different researchers in the last two decades. By reviewing virtually all genetic markers used during the last two decades of bivalve molecular research, it is obvious that the best tools for bivalve molecular study are mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2.