Original Research Article

CHARACTERIZATION AND POTENTIAL APPLICATION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM THE GUT MICROBIAL ISOLATE OF Portunus pelagicus AS DETERGENT ADDITIVE

K. PRIYA, J. JAYANTHI, E. GAYATHIRI, M. G. RAGUNATHAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 11-21

Proteases are the foremost important hydrolytic enzyme that plays a vital role in the metabolism and physiological activities of every organism. There is an increasing demand for protease enzyme worldwide. An extracellular protease producing strain was isolated from the gut of Portunus pelagicus and was identified as Bacillus subtilis. The stability of crude protease in various solid laundry detergents was investigated. The enzyme had an optimum activity at pH 9.0-10.0 and temperature 55-60°C. The protease was found to be stable towards non-ionic (Triton X-100, Tween 20, Tween 80, Brij 35) and ionic detergents (0.1% SDS) and were relatively stable in bleaching agents such as 1% H2O2 and 1% sodium perborate which retained 74% and 63% of their initial activity respectively. Except for acetone, all other organic solvents showed more than 70% of total activity in 10% of solvents (methanol, 2-propanol, xylene, toluene, and benzene). Moreover, the alkaline crude enzyme extract showed its stability and compatibility with commercial solid detergents. Wash performance analysis, stability in pH, temperature, thermal stability and the stability in the presence of surfactants, bleaching agents and organic solvents, suggest its application as a laundry additive.

Original Research Article

ANALYSIS OF PRICE INFLATION OF EXPORTED CRAB AND CRAB PRODUCTS BY INDIA USING LASPEYRES PRICE INDEX

DEVDATTA LAD

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 22-24

Crab is rich in protein and hence one of the finest dietary protein source. The crab protein is of high quality. The crab protein is easily digestible by people belonging to all ages.  Crab meat is rich in vitamins, minerals and Omega – 3 polyunsaturated acids, it is low in fat content. Selenium is also in high amount in crab meat. Selenium plays a key role in the human’s antioxidant defence system, preventing damage to cells and tissues. Selenium also plays an important role in the function of the immune system, in thyroid hormone metabolism and synthesis in reproduction. Crab meat contains nearly 30 times the copper found in cod and 56 times that found in salmon and chicken. India is one of the leading exporters of crab and crab products. The crab and crab products export of India is increasing year after year also the export value is also increasing. But some of the Asian countries such as Bangladesh and Sri Lanka are giving a good competition to India in export of crab and crab products export. This research work mainly aims to determine the price inflation of exported crab and crab products by India using laspeyres price index. The laspeyres price index for the year 2006 and 2016 was 252.10 and 302.52 respectively. The findings of the present research exhibits that the percentage inflation in export prices of Indian Crab and Crab products from 1996 to 2006 was 152.10%, while the percentage inflation rate has increased from 2006 to 2016 by 50.42%. There is inflation in export prices of Indian Crab and Crab products every decades but it is tremendous in the decade of 1996 to 2006 as compared to that of the decade 2006 to 2016. The reason behind the decline of prices in the last decade being that now many Asia countries like Sri Lanka, Bangladesh etc., have entered into the market of crab and crab product export. Due to which Indian crab and crab products have many competitors. Some constructive measures need to be taken in respect to increase the price and demand of commercially important Indian Crab and Crab products in the international Market.

Original Research Article

PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF Punica granatum EXTRACTS AGAINST GASTROINTESTINAL INFECTION AN In-vitro STUDY

RAMSI VAKAYIL, NIVEDHITHA KABEERDASS, ABIRAMI KUPPUSAMY, MAGHIMAA MATHANMOHUN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 25-32

Background: Punica granatum Linn is a bearing fruit shrub, belonging to the family Lythraceae. Every part of this plant is useful for humans such as seeds and fibers endow with vitamins-C, K and folate. Oil acids of punica, palmitic, stearic and oleic acid present in the seeds. Pomegranate is generally used as a conventional medication in India for the cure of enteric bacterial pathogens.

Aim: To study the phytochemicals and antibacterial activities of aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform crude extracts of P. granatum peel against some enteric pathogens.

Materials and Methods: The isolates were examined by Foldscope microscopy and biochemical tests. Phyto-chemical study analyzed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, tannins, reducing sugars, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Vancomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, and co-trimoxazole are the antibiotic disc used in the disc diffusion assay.

Results: A multidrug-resistant pattern was observed in the isolated pathogens. As reported by natural medicine P. granatum is used for the treatment of enteric pathogens. Antimicrobial activity was performed by the standard procedure (Kirby-Bauer’s – agar well diffusion method) using pomegranate extracts (aqueous, alcoholic and chloroform) against the enteric pathogens. Peel crude extracts of P. granatum were showed various degrees of antibacterial activities with the maximum mean inhibition zones reaches 36±1.0 mm in diameter for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with ethanolic extract. The highest zone of clearance was found in ethanolic extract followed by aqueous extract, but only the lowest zone was in chloroform extract. Most significant inhibition was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysentriae followed by Klebsiella sp.

Conclusion: The end result attained that the peel extracts of Punica granatum have impressive pharmaceutical bioactive compounds and antibacterial property. It is used as natural medicine by itself to treat gastrointestinal disorders.

Original Research Article

MONITORING OF HYDROCHEMICAL PROFILE OF LOWER STRETCHES OF RIVER DAMODAR, INDIA

A. K. PANIGRAHI, SUBASINI PATTNAIK

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 1-10

River Damodar is an important tributary of the Ganges. The key objectives of the present study were to determine the seasonal variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the riverine water at pre-designated stations and to evaluate the impact of pollution load on spatial and seasonal differences. Monthly investigation was carried out from March, 2017- February, 2018 to assess the water quality of the lower stretches of River Damodar. Ten Physicochemical parameters such as water temperature (T), pH, Electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total Dissolved solids (TDS),Nitrate, Phosphate etc. were monitored in four sampling stations of diverse eco-hydrological characteristics. The obtained dataset were treated using ANOVA and multivariate statistical techniques such as correlation matrix, Principal Component Analysis to assess the spatiotemporal variation and to identify most important factors governing the water quality of the river. The pH was found neutral to mildly alkaline (6.97-8.3) throughout the study period, while conductance was obtained in the range of 228.65 - 692.33μS/cm. The results of different parameters of Damodar river water are varied and Temperature (F=89.79, P<0.05) and nitrate level (F=10.87, P<0.05) displayed significant seasonal variation.DO (F=5.46, P<0.05), BOD (F=5.98, P<0.05) and TDS (F=6.67, P<0.05) significantly differed among sampling stations. The mean concentration of different water quality variables ranged as, DO- 4.76 to 7.53 mgLˉ1,TDS-86.0 to 648 mgLˉ1, PO43- 0.28to 1.17 mgLˉ1 , NO3-0.43 to 3.21 mgLˉ1, SO42--10 to 57.19 mgLˉ1and BOD-0.96 to  5.57 mgLˉ1 respectively. Impact of the southwest monsoon and spatial heterogeneity were pronounced in the distribution of the TDS and inorganic nutrients. Results of Principal Component Analysis show that 4 varifactors/ PCs are accountable for 81.8% variation. This study would be helpful in formulating control strategy in near future.

Original Research Article

STUDY OF ALP TOXICITY ON LARVAL STAGES OF Ephestia calidella (GUEN.) A PEST OF STORED DRY FRUITS

SHYAM GUPTA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 36-40

In regard to the control by fumigation of Aluminium Phosphide (AlP) was tried to suitable control measures against the Ephestia calidella (Guen.) a pest of stored dry fruits. Aluminium Phosphide was tested at different level of dosages such as Low (1 gm/ m3), Medium (2 gm/ m3) and high (3 gm/ m3) as well as different time exposures as 24, 48, and 72 hours in laboratory conditions. Aluminium Phosphide was most effective in 72 hours exposure at all dosages against all the larval stages of the pest. Toxic effects of AlP fumigation on field and godowns workers have been founded. Biological control of the pest by Bracon hebetor Say was also studied.

Short Research Article

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF RAM GANGA RIVER IN PITHORAGARH, UTTARAKHAND (INDIA)

C. P. SINGH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 40, Issue 1, Page 33-35

Present investigation has been carried out on the various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, free co2 and BOD of Ram Ganga River district Pithoragarh Uttarakhand (India). The pH was recorded in the range of 7.0 - 8.2. The water temperature was recorded range 14C – 26C. Free CO2 of water sample range 1.2 to 2.5 mg/l. Chloride range between 13.5 – 21.6 mg/l. Turbidity range between 1 to 3.5 mg/l. The BOD range 2.1 to 4.6 mg/l. Present study these Physico-chemical parameters are necessary for judging the suitable for water or attributed to growth death and decay of phytoplankton.

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