STUDY THE EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ADVANCED ANDROGEN-INDEPENDENT PROSTATE CANCER (Pc-3) CELLS

Main Article Content

ABHIMANYU KUMAR

Abstract

Hyperinsulinemia is correlated with increase in risk of cancer. Our study supports this fact and reveals that insulin acts as a mitogen and increases PC-3 cell proliferation. Increase in metabolism is reflected by the increase in ROS level, since ROS and SOD expression is modulated by insulin. Finally, insulin also leads to increase in MMPs activity, which is related to metastasis. Taken together all these factors we can say that insulin supports tumor progression. In addition to these further studies are required to explore the role of SOD3 in ROS. Temporal and spatial localization of ROS determines its role, as ROS are also essential in signaling process but abnormal increase in ROS level can also have detrimental effect on cells. This complex relationship requires extensive studies.

Keywords:
Hyperinsulinemia, mitogen, PC-3 cell proliferation, insulin, MMPs activity

Article Details

How to Cite
KUMAR, A. (2021). STUDY THE EFFECT OF INSULIN ON ADVANCED ANDROGEN-INDEPENDENT PROSTATE CANCER (Pc-3) CELLS. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 42(24), 306-316. Retrieved from http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2699
Section
Original Research Article

References

Stratton MR, Campbell PJ, Futreal PA. The cancer genome. Nature. 2009;458(7239):719-724.

Hanahan D, Weinberg RA. Hallmarks of cancer: the next generation. Cell. 2011;144(5):646-674.

Bannuru RR, Dvorak T, Obadan N, Yu WW, Patel K, Chung M, Ip S. Comparative evaluation of radiation treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer: an updated systematic review. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2011;155(3):171-178.

Wilt TJ, MacDonald R, Rutks I, Shamliyan TA, Taylor BC, Kane RL. Systematic review: comparative effectiveness and harms of treatments for clinically localized prostate cancer. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2008;148(6):435-448.

Giovannucci E. The role of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia in cancer causation. Current Medicinal Chemistry-Immunology, Endocrine 38; Metabolic Agents. 2005;5(1):53-60.

Kaaks R, Stattin P. Obesity, endogenous hormone metabolism, and prostate cancer risk: A conundrum of “highs” and “lows”. Cancer Prevention Research. 2010;3(3):259.

Ramahi EH, Ansley KC, Swanson GP, Du F, Basler JW. The effect of obesity and diabetes on intermediate to high grade prostate cancer patients treated with radical prostatectomy. Urological Open Access Journal. 2012;2(1):20-27.

Vigneri P, Frasca F, Sciacca L, Pandini G, Vigneri R. Diabetes and cancer. Endocrine-Related Cancer. 2009;16(4):1103-1123.

Novosyadlyy R, Lann DE, Vijayakumar A, Rowzee A, Lazzarino DA, Fierz Y, Carboni JM, Gottardis MM, Pennisi PA, Molinolo AA. Insulin-mediated acceleration of breast cancer development and progression in a nonobese model of type 2 diabetes. Cancer Research. 2010;70(2):741.

Kulkarni RN, Almind K, Goren HJ, Winnay JN, Ueki K, Okada T, Kahn CR. Impact of genetic background on development of hyperinsulinemia and diabetes in insulin receptor/insulin receptor substrate-1 double heterozygous mice. Diabetes. 2003;52(6):1528-1534.

Snyder CF, Stein KB, Barone BB, Peairs KS, Yeh HC, Derr RL, Wolff AC, Carducci MA, Brancati FL. Does pre-existing diabetes affect prostate cancer prognosis & quest; A systematic review. Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases. 2009;13(1):58.

Weinstein D, Simon M, Yehezkel E, Laron Z, Werner H. Insulin analogues display IGF‐I‐like mitogenic and anti‐apoptotic activities in cultured cancer cells. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews. 2009; 25(1):41-49.

Smith U, Gale EAM. Does diabetes therapy influence the risk of cancer? Diabetologia. 2009;52(9):1699-1708.

Aft RL, Zhang FW, Gius D. Evaluation of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as a chemotherapeutic agent: mechanism of cell death. British Journal of Cancer. 2002;87(7):805-812.

Chan SW, Nguyen PN, Ayele D, Chevalier S, Aprikian A, Chen JZ. Mitochondrial DNA damage is sensitive to exogenous H2O2 but independent of cellular ROS production in prostate cancer cells. Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis; 2011.

Masur K, Vetter C, Hinz A, Tomas N, Henrich H, Niggemann B, Zänker KS. Diabetogenic glucose and insulin concentrations modulate transcriptom and protein levels involved in tumour cell migration, adhesion and proliferation. British Journal of Cancer. 2010;104(2):345-352.

Sliwinska A, Drzewoski J. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cancer. Diabetologia Doświadczalna i Kliniczna. 2007;7(6):268-267.

Vikram A, Jena G. Diet-induced hyperinsulinemia accelerates growth of androgen-independent PC-3 cells in vitro. Nutrition and Cancer. 2012;64(1):121-127.

Ahmad IM, Aykin-Burns N, Sim JE, Walsh SA, Higashikubo R, Buettner GR, Venkataraman S, Mackey MA, Flanagan SW, Oberley LW. Mitochondrial and H2O2 mediate glucose deprivation-induced stress in human cancer cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2005;280(6):4254.

MatÉs JÉM, Pérez-Gómez C, De Castro IN. Antioxidant enzymes and human diseases. Clinical Biochemistry. 1999;32(8):595-603.

Kumar B, Koul S, Khandrika L, Meacham RB, Koul HK. Oxidative stress is inherent in prostate cancer cells and is required for aggressive phenotype. Cancer Research. 2008;68(6):1777.

Wiryana M. The role of intensive insulin therapy in increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and normalizing hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. Acta Med Indones. 2009;41(2):59-65.

Plymate SR, Haugk KH, Sprenger CC, Nelson PS, Tennant MK, Zhang Y, Oberley LW, Zhong W, Drivdahl R, Oberley TD. Increased manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD-2) is part of the mechanism for prostate tumor suppression by Mac25/insulin-like growth factor binding-protein-related protein-1. Oncogene. 2003;22(7):1024-1034.

Skrzycki M, Majewska M, Podsiad M, Czeczot H. Expression and activity of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in colorectal cancer. Acta Biochimica Polonica. 2009;56(4):663.

Hojilla CV, Mohammed FF, Khokha R. Matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors direct cell fate during cancer development. British Journal of Cancer. 2003;89(10):1817-1821.

Khandrika L, Kumar B, Koul S, Maroni P, Koul HK. Oxidative stress in prostate cancer. Cancer Letters. 2009;282(2):125-136.

Kumar M, Prasher S, Singh S. Uranium analysis in some food samples collected from Bathinda area of Punjab, India. Indian Journal of Physics. 2009;83(7):1045-1050.