Shelter construction by different larval instars of Erionota torus Evans (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) is most crucial for ensuring proper nutrition, improving microclimatic conditions needed for the normal larval development, and for avoiding the attack of predators and parasitoids. The present study focus on detailed description of the life cycle and shelter building mechanism of different larval instars of banana skipper Erionota torus, a rapidly invading foliophagus insect pest in the banana plantations of Malabar region of Kerala. With detailed observations carried out both in the field and on the laboratory populations of Erionota larvae, we illustrate the types of shelters constructed during the larval ontogeny and also all the activities performed during the process of shelter-building. Further the paper evaluates the factors as well as threats that influence the shelter making behavior .The location of shelters on the host plant and various aspects of larval feeding behavior are also descried. First and second instar larvae of E. torus build and inhabit in their own shelters by successively abandoning the shelters and constructing new ones. The fourth and fifth instars larvae use the shelter made by the third instars. However the leaf area used to construct the shelter of successive instars increases as the larva increases in size. The larvae of E. torus produce shelters in two distinct styles which change as the larvae grow. These changes in the style of shelter building are likely to be correlated with larval size, needs, biotic and abiotic factors. The average area of leaf used to construct the shelters of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instar larvae were 3.62 ± 0.78 cm2, 17.3 ± 0.61 cm2, 102 ± 0.81cm2, 162.8 ± 1.34 cm2, 275 ±1.41 cm2 respectively .Average area of leaf consumed by first, second, third, fourth and fifth instars were 0.67 ± 0.07 cm2, 5.78 ± 0.15 cm2, 27.93 ± 1.37 cm2, 104 ± 0.51 cm2 and 114.2 ± 0.081 cm2 respectively.Averge length of the leaf shelter of first, second, third, fourth and fifth instars were 1 ± 0.22 cm, 4.64 ± 0.61cm ,13 ± 075 cm, 15 ± 1 cm, 15 ± 3 cm respectively.
Diabetic becomes a severe health concern and a pan disease worldwide. Type 2 diabetic (T2D) is majorly seen in the people and its population growth is ever increasing. The glycemic control is a major way in controlling T2D. The prevention and the optimal diagnosis are two major steps for reducing disease burden in the present life style. This study aimed at the effect of coenzyme q 10 supplementation on long term glycemic control (HbA 1 c level) in Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This study was carried out in Department of Pharmacology and Department of Medicine Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research, Chennai, Tamilnadu during the period of August 2015 - February 2016 (6months). These results showed that a close relationship is existing between the DM2 and deficient coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) level. Further, it showed the supplementation of oral hypoglycemic (Biguanide Metformin) could improve glycemic control and blood coenzyme Q10 level positively.
Fishes occupy the foremost position as biological control agents of mosquito immature. They not only devour effectively on mosquito larvae but quickly adapt themselves to the changed ecological conditions, multiply and control mosquito breeding on self-perpetuating basis. In a present study two easily available indigenous fishes Pethia ticto and Barilius bendelisis were considered to evaluate the feeding preference and the effect of alternative prey on larval feeding efficacy. For food preference test, mosquito larvae, mosquito pupae, chironomid larvae and artificial fish food were considered. The live foods were gathered from the possible water lodging areas and artificial foods from aquarium shops. The first experiments were conducted on a food efficacy test of the varying length size of selected fish on only mosquito larvae and pupae as food. Second experiments were conducted by providing equal number of different food items- mosquito larvae, mosquito pupae, chironomid larvae and artificial fish food in the same container.
Both the fish prefer maximum consumption of live and wriggly food than artificial stationery food. By all length sizes of Pethia ticto consumed a maximum number of chironomid larvae followed by mosquito larvae, mosquito pupae and artificial food in succeeding order. While Barilius bendelisis prefer to consume mosquito larvae as the top choice, followed by mosquito pupae, chironomid and artificial food. In both fish, as increasing length size consumption rate of food increases significantly. Tested consumption data of both fishes were statistically represented by Mean±SD and differences of means was analysed by ANOVA. The food preferences of both fish directly depend on their feeding habits. As Pethia ticto are column feeder maximum attraction is shown with chironomid and mosquito larvae whereas Barilius bendelisis are surface feeder they easily found mosquito larvae and pupae and prefer to consume higher. Thus, the two selected indigenous fishes could be used as biocontrol agents of mosquito immature.
This study presents different resting postures of Indian spot-billed duck. Four resting postures were observed namely: Sleep posture, Rest-sleep posture, Rest posture and Unipedal posture. In every resting posture, ducks remained vigilant which is crucial for its survival from predators. Vigilant actions such as “peeking” and “pseudo sleep” were also observed. Sometimes, lotus leaves were used for sleep. Invariably, resting period was high during mid-day compared to morning / evening.
Rotifer diversity gives a fair idea about the water quality of any lentic or lotic ecosystem. The present study was carried out in monsoon months at two sites of Mandodevi Temple Lake, which reveals that 20 species of rotifers reside in it. Brachionus, comprising 35% of the total, is dominant over all other taxa of rotifers. Different diversity indices like Shannon, Simpson, Margalef etc., indicate that Site-II is more rich in species composition of rotifers than Site-I. Site-I shows signs of eutrophication confirmed by the dominance of Brachionus species like B. calyciflorus, B. angularis, B. falcatus, B. caudatus, B. forficula, B. diversicornis.
Birds are intelligent, sociable creatures and exhibit a wide array of behaviours. The behaviours often do not occur in isolation and have Fixed Action Patterns (FAP). Indian spot-billed duck revealed certain FAP with regard to the bathing behaviour. Hence, bathing sequence in Indian spot-billed duck was recorded systematically to analysis the sequence of events, illustrate it using kinematic diagram. Data indicate that the probability of occurrence followed FAP. In the present study two bathing methods were recorded with differences between these two bathing methods. In this study, FAP analysis was done for head-dip bath and wing-thrashing. Further, somersault and wing thrash action was a part of FAP. Wing flap action was always recorded following head dip bath which was rare.
Para-nasal sinuses cover many situations which may range from inflammatory to neoplasms. The sinuses that we are mentioning here are in closely anatomically connected with the orbit and the cranial fossa too. Therefore, early participation of these sectors is an important feature. Since the clinical evaluation is deprivation of the surrounding bone structures, clinical radiology is of vital importance.
Objective: To evaluate role of Computed Tomography in correlation with clinical finding in assessing the severity of nasal and para-nasal diseases.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Radio Diagnosis, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences and Hospital. All the patients referred to the department of Radio diagnosis with suspected or diagnosed with pathologies of para-nasal sinus was first evaluated with plain film followed by Computed Tomography evaluation.
Results: Maximum number of patients had sinonasal polyposis pattern 31 (70.45%) followed by infundibular6 (13.63%), osteomeatal unit 3 (6.81%),sporadic 3 (6.81%)and least was spheno ethmoid recess pattern1 (2.27%) of patients.
Conclusion: the correlation of anatomical computed tomographic CT abnormalities such as concha bullosa and Deviated nasal septum DNS in the causation of Para- Nasal Sinus PNS disease cannot be emphasized without the control group.
The present study aims at a preliminary investigation of antibacterial properties of Neem, Charcoal and husk of betel nut in case of betel quid chewers and non-chewers and characterization of oral bacteria before and after treatment with raw neem, charcoal and husk of betel nut. Buccal swab samples were collected from oral cavities of chewer and non-chewer using sterile cotton swabs and streaked on sterile nutrient agar plates. The plates were kept for overnight incubation and bacterial colonies were observed. Colony morphology was studied followed by Gram staining. More bacterial colonies were obtained in case of chewer as compared to that of non- chewer. Gram-positive cocci (GPC), few gram-positive bacilli (GPB) and gram-negative cocci (GNC) were observed. After treatment with Neem significant reduction in GPC was observed. Neem showed the highest reduction in bacterial colonies followed by Charcoal and husk of betel nut.
Ganoderma lucidium (Reishi) is a Mushroom that belongs to the family of Ganodermataceae, which is popularly known as “Spirit Plant”. Ganoderma lucidium has been used traditionally to treat many diseases since ancient times. Modern studies also scientifically concluded that Ganoderma lucidium has various medicinal properties like anti glycemic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer, etc. This Study uses this Ganoderma lucidium extract anticancer property to be analyzed by invivo method using MCF-7 cell line and vero cell lines. G.Lucidum mycelium extract showed a significant effect on MCF-7 cell line in a concentration range between 100μg/ml to 50 μg/ml compared with the control. This G. Lucidum mycelium extract exerts high cytotoxicity in 100 μg/ml concentration againstMCF-7cell line and the IC50 values of G. Lucidum mycelium extract on the MCF-7 cell line was21.48 μg /ml. Thus, we successfully demonstrate G. Lucidum mycelium extract could be a selective anti-cancer compound with greater inhibition against human breast cancer cell line, and mild activity towards normal cells.
An injection guide comprises a holder being cylindrical shape. The holder is having a provision for insertion of a syringe. A base frame means to support for the syringe holder; primary angle unit and secondary angle unit, said units having a predetermined degree of angle varying from to a primary pointer and a secondary pointer, the primary pointer and the secondary pointer being connected to primary angle unit and secondary angle unit respectively. A slit being oval shape means to insert the needle; said slit being centrally placed in the said injection guide.
Aim and Objective: To provide am anually operated intramuscular and subcutaneous injection process.
Methods: Injections are administered invarious angles. Intramuscular injection is administered at 90°.Subcutaneous injection is at 45°.Intravenous injection is administered at 20° and intradermal injection is at 10 to15°. Many times errors in administration of injections were noted by health care professionals and as a result patient suffers from the complications which sometimes very severe and even in the case, the death might be happened due to this error.
Results: For intravenous (20° angle), intramuscular (90° angle) and intradermal (10° angle)injection, except length of the syringe holder, the dimension of other components was varied and it was selected as per the type of the injection.
Conclusion: Not only primary and secondary angle unit of the device but also length of the syringe holder is critical in order to achieve the desired angle for the injection.
Amphipods are tiny crustaceans that have adapted to diverse habits and habitats of different ecosystems. Found in freshwater, brackish water and a few in terrestrial ecosystems, these malacostracans play a pivotal role in the energetics of the lake. The mouthparts aid in the amphipods serving as detrivores, an important trophic level in the aquatic ecosystem and the modifications in the mouthparts for adaptation to different ecosystems. Of the eight families of amphipods in Pulicat lake, amphipods from two families, Talitridae, an intertidal group and Gammaridae an aquatic group were analysed of the mouthparts to detect the variation in the mouthpart to suit their habitats. It was found that the mouthparts varied with regard to the palps, size of the molars and the setae. There has been subtle modification amongst the genera to adapt to the type of food it feeds on. Significant among the differences are the absence of mandibular palp in Talitridae and densely setose maxilla in Gammaridae. It is found to correspond to the habit and food available in their respective habitats.
Human activities have made a big impact on Marehalli Lake, Karnataka, India. This study was carried out during August 2018 to July 2020 to cover all seasons in rendemly selected 04 sampling plots. The study examined the level of pollutions by observing the zooplanktons in quantitative method which includes diversity, distribution and physico-chemical factors for consecutive 24 months.
Sample analysis elucidated the existence of zooplankton species including Rotifers, Cladocera, Copepods, and Ostracods. Rotifera dominated the average for the entire group. The summer season had the largest diversity of rotifers, cladocera, copepods, and ostracods, while the winter season had the lowest. The summer season also had the highest density. It's worth noting that the Marehalli lake is slowly transitioning into a mesotrophic environment.
Traditional uses of medicinal plants in healthcare practices are providing clues to new areas of research. In the present study, we have made an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by communities of two villages of Cachar District, Silchar, Assam. Information was obtained through interviews using semi-structured questionnaires. At the end of our survey, we found that a total of 18 plant species are used in the treatment of various diseases by the communities of our study areas. Peoples from both the communities used various units of measurement such as finger length for root, bark, and stem, pinch for powdered, and numbers for leaves, seeds, fruits, and flowers, to fix the amount or dosage of medicine. We also observed that the healers were mostly aged person. Finally, we collected a part of each reported plant species, took photograph and identified.
The present study was conducted to find out the effect of atrazine on kidney of Barbus carnaticus through histopathological examination. The 1/10th of the corresponding LC 50 values were treated as sublethal concentrations. Result showed that sublethal concentrations of atrazine produced drastic changes in histological structure of kidney. Observing all changes in kidney, it is concluded that sufficient precautions should be taken while using chemical fertilizers, herbicides and pesticides. They are destroying aquatic life.
Catfishes comprise an extremely large group of fishes of the order Siluriformes and the vast majority of them inhabit freshwaters. Morphometrics and meristic count are inevitable in fish taxonomy and systematics that help to identify particular taxa up to sub-species level. In the present study, morphometric measurement and meristic count of Mystus gulio from Maruthur wetland were investigated with 22 specimens. Twenty-eight different morphometric characters in percentage of total fish length and head length and five different meristic counts (branched and unbranched rays) were recorded and used to draw the fin formula. The obtained results revealed that the morphometric characters vary depending on the growth and size of the fish; the meristic counts were comparatively similar in all collected specimens, because of species-specific desirable traits. Except for three morphometric characters remaining characters analysed in the study show a positive correlation in percentage of total length and head length. This study endorses the importance of morphometric characters and meristic counts in ascertaining species identification that precedes modern genetic techniques.
The present study deals with the study of food and feeding habits of a fresh water teleostean gobiid fish Glossogobius gutum (Ham.) in Yamuna river at Makhdumpur, Jehanabad. The intensive and extensive study on gut content analysis revealed the presence of a wide variety of food items in their gut. The fishes , unidentified animal matters (UAMs.) , crustaceans , insects and their larvae and molluscs were the major food items whereas , the debris , mucous and algae were present in trace quantities . The Gastro - Somatic Index (GSI) showed variation which was varied from 2.11 to 3.40 in large (12.1-16 cm ) and small size (5-8 cm ) length group of fishes respectively. The feeding intensity showed month wise fluctuation with slight rise and fall , which were maximum (3.50) in the month of October and minimum (2.10) in the month of July through the observation of Gastro-Somatic-Index. A direct relationship was recorded between feeding intensity and condition factor (K). The RLG values were varied between 0.38 (Length group I) to 0.50 (Length group III). On the basis of gut content analysis and their RLG value it showed that the fishes are carnivore bottom feeder and highly cannibalistic in nature.
Probiotics are living microorganisms that have positive effects on the health of the digestive system when acquired in a defined dosage and helps to stimulate the immune response in fish against deadly pathogens. Therefore, focusing on the maintenance of gastrointestinal health is more essential. This study aimed to determine the antagonistic activity of bacteria isolated from the gut of freshwater fish Etroplus maculatus. In the present study, we isolated 20 bacterial isolates with different colony morphology; further screened for antibacterial activity using the cross streaking and disk diffusion method against Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcusaureus. In the preliminary screening isolates EF1 and EM9 were found to have prominent antagonistic activity. In the cross-streaking method, the isolates EM9 showed the highest level of inhibitory (85%) against Staphylococcus aureus; a moderate level of activity in EM9 against Aeromonas hydrophila and the lowest level of inhibition in EF1 and EM9 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae. The bacterial metabolites of active bacterial isolates (EF1 and EM9) were screened for their bioactive potential. Ethyl acetate extract of EM9 isolate has been shown to have predominant activity against fish pathogens at 100 µg/disc concentration with a zone of inhibition of 14mm against Staphylococcus aureus followed by EF1 where the zone of inhibition was highest with 12mm. The active bacterial isolates were identified as Escherichia sp and Bacillus sp based on morphological and biochemical characteristics. This investigation clearly shows that the fish gut can be explored as a source of antagonistic bacteria which produces antimicrobial compounds of wide spectrum of bioactivity. These bacterial secondary metabolites have warranted much research interest because of their biochemical diversity, broad specificity on antimicrobial, and even anti-tumoural or wound-healing effects.
The study deals with the physicochemical properties of river Rupnarayan. Some limno-chemical parameters like PH, DO, BOD, COD, Total Alkalinity, Total Hardness, Temperature, TDS, Phosphate, Ammonia were assessed monthly during 2019-2020 of river Rupnarayan. Principal component analysis, Cluster dendrogram, Pearson Correlation was exerted to know the similarities as well as relations between the parameters. Highest mean Total Hardness was recorded in Kolaghat (115.705 mg/l).Highest mean BOD was observed in Chitnan (2.108mg/l). Principal component analysis showed two factors were eigenvalue greater than 1. The study suggests that PH, BOD, Ammonia are positively correlated with Temperature.
Water is the dynamic source, essential for all aspects of human and ecosystem for existence and health. Due the human and industrial activities the river water is contaminated. This is serious problem now a days. Many heavy metals have their toxic effects on man and environment. Chemical weathering of minerals, mining activities and industrial discharges increased heavy metals concentration in water. During the study period 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 water sample were collected of Kotepally lake during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post monsoon and metal analyses carried out to assess the Copper, Zinc and Nickle. The present study revealed the impact of various metals, even though they do not heavy any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning.
The limnological study is a pre-requisite in any aquatic system to evaluate its potentialities, to understand the realities between various water levels and food networks. Smaller water bodies like ponds, tanks are the important components of the landscape, are seriously threatened by climate change, eutrophication, and other anthropogenic activities Recently, Aquaculture is fast growing in many parts of India and in the world. Zooplanktons are the important component of the biotic habitat that influence the functional aspects and plays a key role in the food chain, nutrient recycling, and energy flow in the aquatic ecosystem. Zooplanktons are controlled by many factors, such as physico-chemical parameters, trophic status, pollution impact, and all kinds of interactions between biological communities. Members of the zooplankton's community are important for their role in energy transfer in trophic dynamics and water ecosystems. They provide food to fish in freshwater ponds and play a key role in lakes for fish production. Zooplankton diversity is one of the most important ecological parameters in water quality assessment. They are very sensitive to environmental changes and are therefore considered to be the potential indicators of water quality. The present investigation aims to study the zooplankton diversity for a period of two years from February 2014 to January 2016 in Kunigal tank to assess the species composition and seasonal variations of this faunal group. Diversity indices such as Shannon-Weiner Index and Simpson Index were calculated. On monthly basis, the water samples were collected from five sampling sites between 7 am to 9 am. 50 liters of water sample were collected, filtered through 60μm mesh size plankton net. The concentrated water sample was fixed and preserved in 4% formalin, one ml concentrated sample was transferred into Sedge-wick Rafter cell and counted under Olympus binocular microscope. Sample preserved in Lugol’s solution was centrifuged, sample from pellet was observed under digital microscope and planktons were photographed. The results revealed the occurrence of 25 species of zooplanktons belonging to four groups - Rotifera, Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda. Rotifera is represented by 10 species belonging to 6 genera, Cladocera- 8 species belonging to 6 genera, Copepoda -5 species belonging to 5 genera and Ostracoda - 2 species belonging to 2 genera. Rotifera is dominant followed by Cladocera, Copepoda and Ostracoda species. The percentage composition of zooplankton species was found as Rotifera > Cladocera > Copepoda > Ostracoda. Shannon-Weiner Index value of zooplanktons ranged between 2.0 - 3.0 and Simpson Index values between 0 and 1. Temperature was the main factor in the appearance and abundance of Rotifer species. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity play an important role in controlling the diversity and density of Cladocerans. High population density of Copepoda during summer may be due to favourable temperature and availability of food. Maximum population density of Ostracoda during summer season may be due to water quality. Shannon-Weiner Index and Simpson Index values indicated the good diversity with less water pollution of the tank. This help in planning of successful fisheries management and to improve the productivity of the tank.
Background: Cancer cervix continues to be the most common genital cancer accounting for 80% of female genital cancer. It is the leading cause for mortality & morbidity among women worldwide.
Materials and Methods: This study was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology during the period of July 2010 to Sep 2011 in 250 women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 5.5% of the study group belonged to other religions. Cytology, Colposcopy and HPE showed more abnormalities in Hindus. 2
Results: 4.2% of Hindus showed dysplasia on HPE. Among the para 1 to 2, 17.5% had dysplasia on HPE, among the para 3 to 4, 22.2% had dysplasia on HPE and among the para 5 and above, 46.2% had dysplasia· on HPE showing high incidence of dysplasia in the multiparty. The incidence of dysplasia was found to be high among the lower socio-economic groups.(5.9% of class III,25% of class IV and 29.8% of class V had dysplasia on HPE. 33.9% of women who got married at less than 19 years and 10.4% of women married between 20-29 years had dysplasia on HPE showing the high incidence of dysplasia in women with early coitarche. 68.2% of the patients had leucorrhoea as presenting symptoms, of which 22.7% had dysplasia on HPE,1.3% had malignancy on biopsy.2.7% of the patients had postictal bleeding, of which 33.3% had dysplasia on HPE and 33.3% had malignancy on HPE indicating the high incidence of dysplasia in patients with Postictal bleeding and leucorrhoea.
Conclusion: Downsta6in6/Pap Smear is an easy and perspective method and its importance lies in teaching, diagnosis and management of cervical lesions, neoplastic and non- neoplastic.
The mulberry silkworm B. mori feeds exclusively on mulberry leaves and the leaf quality is as a sole factor governing the production of good cocoon crop. Improvement in the nutritional quality of mulberry leaves can enhance the efficiency of cocoon and seed production in silkworm. They act as growth promoting factors, indirectly helps in reducing further spread of diseases. Therefore the present work is selected to analyse the efficacy of aqueous extract of medicinally important plant Alpinia galanga on larval growth and cocoon traits. Larval duration, Larval weight (g), Cocoon, pupal and shell weight (g), Cocoon Shell Ratio (CSR) (%) were measured. From the present investigation it was understood that its application is an inexpensive source of fortificant for silkworm rearing. In this study plasmatocytes was increased during the concentration increased. The increased number of granulocytes and plasmatocytes can be related with the defense mechanism in B. mori, as both the haemocytes functions as phagocytes.
Background: Among children under the age of five in the developing world, diarrheal disease is one of the two leading causes of death among those under five. The availability of information on the prevalence of diarrhoea and its associated risk factors in the Bundelkhand region is limited.
A community-based study was undertaken with the objective to determine the effectiveness of a health education programme on the knowledge regarding diarrhoea prevention and management among 60 mothers of under five children in selected rural areas of Jhansi.
Methods: A pre-experimental one-group pre-test post-test was used to in the current study. A structured questionnaire was used to assess participants' knowledge of diarrhoea prevention and management.
Results: The study's findings indicated that the majority of mothers had insufficient knowledge of diarrhoea prevention and management (46.66 percent), moderate knowledge of diarrhoea prevention and management (23.33 percent), and none had adequate knowledge of diarrhoea prevention and management. The fact that the mean post-test knowledge score (19.12) is significantly higher than the mean pre -test knowledge score (11.7) demonstrates the educational program's effectiveness (p0.05). Thus, the study findings strongly suggest that a health education programme is necessary to improve mothers' knowledge and practise, thereby lowering child mortality from dehydration and preventing future occurrences.
Conclusion: The burden of diarrheal disease in the Bundelkhand region is quite high, as is the case in many other parts of the developing world, including India. The study concluded that health education is an effective method for providing knowledge with reference to prevention and management of diarrhoea.
Leiognathids, commonly known as ponyfishes are characterised by their protrusible mouth and there are a lot of controversies in their nomenclature. In this study, a total of five species of family Leiognathidae were collected from the Parangipettai landing centre, Tamilnadu, India. For morphometric analysis, 24 morphometric data points were collected for each species and their variation was studied. There were significant variations among the species, with minor overlap. Out of 24 characters, 14 were unique to each species. The features on pectoral and pelvic fins, upper and lower jaw lengths and pre-orbital length were highly significant variable characteristics among the ponyfish studied. Among the five species, the within-species variation was more in Gazza minuta and Eubleekeria splendens. But the within -species variation was less in Karalla dussumieri and Nuchequula gerreoides.
Toxicological effect of pulp and papermill effuent in the fish, Oreochromis mossambicus was investigated in the present study. Pulp and papermill effluent discharged from Hindustan News Print LTD, Peruva, Kottayam, Kerala were collected and adult fish of size 15 ± 2 g were exposed to a sublethal concentrations (1/5th and 1/10th LC50 value) of the effluent for a period of 10, 20 and 30 days. The treated fish were compared with the control group for the histological alterations in the blood smear. The study revealed marked changes in the blood tissues of the effluent treated fish.
Spiders are considered as biological indicators of the ecosystem since they act as predators and food for other organisms in the environment. The present study was carried out at Vellayani –Punchakari wetland agricultural ecosystem. A total of 18 species belonging to eight families were observed during the study. The dominant species observed in the study area belongs to the family Araneidae. Common species viz., Neoscona mukerjei, Hersiliasavignyi, Oxyopesshweta and Thomisus Sp. were found from Vellayani Punchakari ecosystem. The most observed species from Vellayani-Punchakarieco systems was Neoscona Sp. The present study provides valuable information on the current status of spider diversity that flourishes in this particular ecosystem.
A total 102 drinking water samples were collected from Uzhavoor Grama Panchayat and estimated the most probable number of Coliforms in the water samples by MPN method and out of which 16 samples were only potable and 86samples were non potable. Five public water supply systems which showed presence of Escherichia coli in the first analysis were selected for a detailed study as the number of beneficiaries of these water sources was high. Isolation and identification of enteric bacteria by biochemical characterisation such as Gram staining, motility and IMViC test and determination of physico-chemical factors of the selected samples were also done. The presence of high level of coliforms was observed in three samples which may be due to the sewage and septic tank contamination leading to the occurrence of possible bacterial or viral contamination from human sewage or animal manure. Physicochemical Analysis of the selected five water samples indicated that pH, conductivity, total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Salinity and temperatures are almost in a safe level as per WHO guidelines. But chloride level was higher in the water samples than the safe limit (0-35ppm). All the samples had very low hardness. Copper was reported absent in all the samples.
Result of the study clearly indicated that most of the water sources in this area is polluted increasingly and that it may create serious threat to human health and environment. Some of the parameters were outside the accepted limits recommended by the World Health Organization for drinking water. It is concluded that water from these sources should be disinfected with lime and bleaching powder
Aim: The Adverse Drug Reaction related to the psychotropic drugs is important aspect for the completion of the treatment regime and solely based on the awareness of the drug.
Method: The present study aimed to analyse the awareness and the impacts on the patients related to the usage of aripiprazole as the psychotic drug in inpatient ward at Chennai based hospital. The CDSCO Adverse Drug Reaction reporting form with specified the ADRs was used to analyzing the events in patients.
Results: The metabolic changes associated with aripiprazole were insignificant but, olanzapine showed severe changes in respective patients was the main focus of the present study.
Conclusion: The clinical uses of the aripiprazole were higher than its side effects and the present study showed its severity of the side effects. Meanwhile, this required enough time for ensuring the future promises.
Background: Low back pain is a musculoskeletal disorder that is a crisis to the population worldwide. ‘‘Non-specific low back pain’’ (NSLBP) is a category for patients having pain which does not have an anatomical or pathological root. In India, 60 percent of the people have significant back pain at some time or the other in their life.Physical therapy methods such as a spinal stabilization and strengthening exercises, spinal manipulation, mobilization techniques, massages, electrical stimulation, ultrasound and mechanical traction. Till date, besides the above mentioned physiotherapeutic interventions, there is no evidence of any device that would provide a combined effect of decompressive vacuum therapy and electrical stimulation to the soft tissues of the back to reduce Low back pain.
Objective: To determine the efficacy of 3D(dynamic decompressive device) jacket therapy in individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain.This study will validate the efficacy of a newly designed device- 3D (dynamic decompressive device) jacket in individuals with low back pain as well as quantify the therapeutic effect of the same device in terms of pain relief and quality of life.
Methodology: This analytical study included 10 individuals with chronic non-specific low back pain whose age ranged from 25-45 years and whose pain intensity on visual analogue scale (VAS) was greater than 5 both at rest and on activity. These patients were divided in two groups, a control group (n=5) which received convention physiotherapy- mcKenzie therapy exercises and an experimental group (n=5) which received 3D (dynamic decompressive device) jacket therapy for 12 weeks. The outcome measures assessed were pain intensity (Visual analogue scale) and quality of life (SF-36 questionnaire).
Results: The collected data from participants in group A who were given a conventional McKenzie Therapy exercise regime to reduce chronic non-specific low back pain for a duration of 12 weeks revealed statistically significant decrease (p<0.01) in VAS scores for pain intensity at rest and on activity.
Conclusion: The obtained findings showed that the 3D (dynamic decompressive device) jacket therapy is significantly effective in reducing chronic non- specific low back pain than conventionally given physiotherapy treatment. Hence, 3D jacket therapy should be effectively used in reducing chronic non-specific low back pain and improving quality of life.
The post-operative pulmonary complications predominately rose from the breathing difficulties as the result of the cardiac surgeries. The preoperative procedures are available for enhancing the breathing capacity of the lungs. The present study aimed to analyse the impacts of the pre- operative breathing training in the patients who undergone for the cardiac surgery. The exercise with intensive spirometer, deep breathing, continuous positive airway pressure and mobilization of ambulation were given to the preoperative patients. The study showed that significant differences exist between the breathing efficiency between the trained and non- trained patients.
Background: Lower Damodar river basin is a densely populated area in the Howrah district, West Bengal state, India. There are incidences of water overflow in the region every year during monsoon. The area is chiefly dominated by agroecosystems and aquatic bodies of varied dimension. The region possesses rich diversity of birds fauna which is yet to be documented till date and thus need to be surveyed.
Aim: Prepare a checklist of the avifaunal diversity alongwith their habitat strata and feeding guilds.
Materials and methods: The avifaunal diversity using suitable birds count method in a small patch of 30 sq.km. area located in the lower Damodar river basin was documented.
Results and Discussion: 574 individuals of 62 species of birds belonging to 15 orders and 32 families were documented from the area. Order Passeriformes represented by 14 families, were the most abundant in the area followed by Pelecaniformes and Columbiformes. 10 different habitat types and 8 feeding guilds for the birds were identified in the region. The bird community in the region is dominated by insectivore (32%) followed by carnivore (14%), omnivore (13%), granivore and nectarivore (10% each), frugivore (9%), scavenger (7%) and piscivore (5%). Analysis of variance between the group means of the birds belonging to different habitat strata shows significant difference.
Conclusion: Biodiversity indices shows lesser dominance, good evenness and richness of bird species in the area. Spread of the human settlement across the pristine ecosystem, occasional hunting along with non-judicious uses of pesticides in the agricultural fields are the major threats to the bird diversity in the region that needs further detailed study.
Hyperinsulinemia is correlated with increase in risk of cancer. Our study supports this fact and reveals that insulin acts as a mitogen and increases PC-3 cell proliferation. Increase in metabolism is reflected by the increase in ROS level, since ROS and SOD expression is modulated by insulin. Finally, insulin also leads to increase in MMPs activity, which is related to metastasis. Taken together all these factors we can say that insulin supports tumor progression. In addition to these further studies are required to explore the role of SOD3 in ROS. Temporal and spatial localization of ROS determines its role, as ROS are also essential in signaling process but abnormal increase in ROS level can also have detrimental effect on cells. This complex relationship requires extensive studies.
Larvicidal efficacy of crude root extracts (0.1 to 0.5% concentrations) of Elettaria cardamomum (L.) Maton (E. cardamomum (L.) Maton) were tested against 1st to 4th instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Cx. quinquefasciatus Say) for a period of 24, 48, and 72 hrs of exposure. Petroleum ether, hexane, and ethyl acetate root extracts with 30, 40, and 50 ppm concentrations each were tested against only 3rd instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus up to 24, 48, and 72 hrs of exposure. Crude root extract showed great efficacy in larvicidal activity. First instar larvae were most susceptible to crude root extract. Only at 0.3% concentration of crude root extract, first instar larvae showed cent percent mortality after 24 hrs of exposure. Second, third, and fourth instar larvae showed 96.66±3.33%, 96.66±3.33% and 60.00±5.77% mortality respectively at 0.5% concentration of crude root extract. Petroleum ether, hexane, and ethyl acetate root extracts showed LC50 values = 30.47, 42.22, and 58.81 ppm respectively after 72 hrs of exposure. Among tested three solvent root extracts, petroleum ether root extract showed the best result in larvicidal efficacy followed by hexane and ethyl acetate root extracts. Phytochemical analyses of root extracts revealed the presence of several secondary metabolites. Negative control and ethanol treated control experiments did not show any larval mortality. Statistical significance was determined through three ways ANOVA analyses for larvicidal bioassays by crude root extract. Mortality percent of larvae showed significant values in terms of instar, hour, and concentration of crude root extract. In conclusion, crude and petroleum ether root extracts of the plant may be used to control of Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquito population. Experimented non-target creatures were non responsive to crude as well as petroleum ether root extracts, so its uses will be also eco friendly.
The methods for Obstetrics had been changed with the time and the more complicated cases are now being handled very practically. To assess various Antenatal complications in pregnancy among women aged 35years and above with younger women of age group 20-34years. The various Antenatal complications in women >35years and in women between 20 -35years of age attending our antenatal clinic was assessed using percentage of occurrence. At each antenatal visit, Patient’s General examination including vital parameters, Obstetrical examination for fetal growth and wellbeing were noted down. It is appropriate to conclude that elderly mothers with meticulous evaluation of pre-pregnancy health status, prenatal care, antenatal surveillance and delivery in a tertiary institution with proper NICU facilities can expect good perinatal outcome. The present study showed that there were higher caesarean rates. There were no birth injuries, but there was one neonatal death in women more than 35years. It is appropriate to conclude that elderly mothers with meticulous evaluation of pre-pregnancy health status, prenatal care, antenatal surveillance and delivery in a tertiary institution with proper NICU facilities can expect a good perinatal outcome.
Tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta is a silk-producing wild Lepidopteran, grows in wild conditions, and is reared by forest tribal communities in South and Eastern Indian states. Raw and fabricated silk is used in many industries to prepare sophisticated goods and also achieve foreign exchange value. Rearing in an open environment reduces crop yield due to unfavourable abiotic stress and biotic invaders. Polyamines (PAs) are intermediate metabolites formed during amino acids metabolism and participate in vital cellular functions and their deficiency led to an adverse impact on cellular metabolisms. PAs supplements showed different outcomes in Bombyx mori. But various polyamines i.e., Putrescine (Put), Spermidine (Spd), and Spermine (Spm) application with different concentrations (50 µM, 100 µM, and 150 µM) and comparative study at natural conditions in Tasar silkworm, A. mylitta, DABA-BV ecorace was not yet done to date. This study reveals that PAs of Spd 50, spd 100, Spm 50, and Spm 100 were raised Larval and silk gland weight, Silk gland body mass Index (BMI), the weight of cocoon pupa, shell along with the filament length and reliability percentage. These results can be used to develop hybrid ecoraces of silkworms that can effectively metabolize amino acids and their derivative polyamines.
Kuttanad, the rice bowl of Kerala, India (Altitude – sea level; Latitude – 9.9 N and Longitude – 76.2 E) is a region where there is overdose application of pesticide during the punja cultivation periods. Phosphamidon, Monocrotophos, Henosan and Thymet are the major components of the pesticides being used in Kuttanad. The exposure of fish to pesticides is likely to induce a number of lesions in body organs like gills, liver, kidney. The gills are the most important and sensitive organs of a fish body, which first experience the hazards of, polluted ambient water. As the fish gills are exposed to pesticides, a wide variety of structural changes in fish gills have been reported. They are hypertrophy, hyperplasia, oedema, mucous secreation, telengiectasis, stasis, hemorrhage, necrosis, fibroid, etc. The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of Phosphamidon induced histological changes in the gills of Etroplus maculatus, a fresh water food fish inhabiting the paddy fields of Kuttanad, and to arrive at a Maximum Allowable Toxicant Concentration (MATC) based on the histopathology. This end point gives an ‘early warning’ of the damage caused in the fish at the histological level before their mortality. Hence preventive measures can be taken to protect the fishery resources. The study shows that the pathological changes are gradually increasing from the lowest concentration to the highest concentration.
Based on the index value, the MATC is 0.1732 ppm and the Application Factor (AF) is 0.0583.
Tea, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze is a perennial and monoculture crop growing over extensive areas of Darjeeling hills, Terai and the Dooars regions. It provides an inexhaustible resource for colonization of the tea mosquito bug, Helopeltis theivora Waterhouse that cause substantial damage to the tea crop. Insecticides like organophosphates and pyrethroids are regularly applied to control this pest. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) act by binding to the neurotransmitter (acetylcholine) in some synapses of the nervous system in many pests. The objective of this study was to investigate the quantitative and qualitative differences in the acetylcholinesterase in cerebral ganglion of this sucking bug, and then to compare between specimens that maintained in laboratory conditions and those collected from pesticide exposed tea plantations. A significantly high level of activity of the acetylcholinesterase was evident in the cerebral ganglia homogenate of the pesticide-exposed individual. Comparison of isozyme profiles also showed a common basic pattern with only one acetylcholinesterase band with Rm value of 0.13 that was observed both in pesticide exposed as well as laboratory maintained individual. The field-collected specimens showed deeply stained band indicating an intensive formation of AChE, which tells us much about the insecticide resistance level of this sucking pest. AChE based detection technique would be helpful for easy detection of the pesticide resistance status of this tea pest in near future.
Three new recorded species, viz., Lepidocyrtusruber (Schott, 1902), Seira mendoncea (Bellini & Zeppelini, 2008) and Orchesella albosa (Guthrie, 1903), from Rajshahi University Campus, Bangladesh are described and illustrated with a key to the genus and species. The following three Collembola species were identified, recorded, and reported for the first time from Bangladesh.
Filariasis prevention relies greatly on local understanding and views of the disease. In this context, a study was carried out in Janjgir, Chhattisgarh, India, to learn about people's awareness of filariasis. Incidences of filariasis are found in the state and the Janjgir. Qualitative and quantitative both methods were used to obtain data. The local word only describes the clinical symptom of filariasis. About 76.5% males and 79.5% females were aware about filariasis, of which only about 34.6% males and 42.61% females were known that filariasis spreads by mosquitoes. Filariasis treatment is available, according to about 27% of respondents.
H1N1 Influenza virus, otherwise known as swine flu is one of the subtypes of influenza A virus. The H1N1 flu spreads rapidly from human to human while sneezing and coughing. It was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2009. Although the influenza virus has some effective vaccines, the H1N1 subtype of the virus does not have a low-cost and safest vaccine. The peptide-based vaccine design does not involve the in vitro culturing of the pathogenic virus and also, it is a cost and time-saving technology. This study aims at identifying the potential epitope through the available immunoinformatics tools. Among the 11 proteins of H1N1, approximately 22 epitopes are predicted. Two of these epitopes showed good interactions with various MHC alleles. Hence the 3D structure of the epitopes and HLA protein were built. The best two epitopes LSTASSWSY and VSFNQNLEY are from the structural proteins of the H1N1 virus namely Haemagglutinin and Neuraminidase. The surface proteins are the best targets for vaccine design. The molecular docking result and pose view of the interaction of HLA and the epitopes suggests LSTASSWSY as the more stable and potential epitope for vaccine designing since it has a good binding affinity -7.71 kcal/mol and also has both hydrogen and hydrophobic interactions with the HLA protein. This study can hopefully be a lead for the vaccine design for the H1N1 virus.
Soil dwelling microarthropods occupied a very important component for maintaining the soil quality and soil health of an ecosystem. Different management practices greatly influence the abundance and distribution of edaphic microarthropods. The present study aims to elucidate the vertical distribution of mites and collembola in two tea agroecosystems with different agronomic practices viz- conventional and organic management in South Assam. The study revealed that organically managed system has higher abundance and density of both mites (17.54 and 17.54 ind./soil corer for WJTE; and 8.63 and 8.63 ind./soil corer for RTE) and collembolan (6.71 and
5.88 ind./soil corer for WJTE; and 4.86 and 4.25 ind./soil corer for RTE) as compared to the conventionally managed system. But the conventional tea agroecosystem showed higher percent composition (26.73% for 10- 20 cm; and 13.79% for 20-30 cm) with increasing soil depth as compared to organic tea garden (17.38% for 10- 20 cm; and 7.17% for 20-30 cm). This may be attributed as an adaptation strategy of soil arthropods to avoid the unfavourable conditions resulted from the management techniques. Negative correlation was revealed between soil depth and cryptostimata mite (r= -0.90 for WJTE and r= -0.89 for RTE) but not statistically significant (p=.28 for WJTE and p=.29 for RTE) for both sites. Similar result was reported for Collembola (r=-0.95 for WJTE and r=-0.94 for RTE; p=.19 for WJTE and p=.21 for RTE. The study revealed that there exist a significant influence of various management strategies on the distribution and diversity of the soil dwelling microarthropods.
The suitable and appropriate environmental conditions and also the mulberry leaves with high nutritional content for feeding is the key for the success of sericulture industry.The rearing of silkworms for getting better yield of raw silk there is need to study the environmental impact on the enzyme activities which will directly affect the food consumption and utilization. Hence, in the present study the impact of seasons viz summer, winter, and rainy on Amylase and Invertase activity from the midgut,fatbodies,haemolymph and silkgland of silkworm Bombyxmori L. was analysed. A comparative study was done by feeding the larvae with two different varieties of mulberry viz V1 and M5. Among the seasons,insummer,significant increase in the amylase activityobserved in all test tissues whilein winter invertase activity increasedin all test tissues of silkworm larvae fed on both V1 and M5 mulberry leaves.
The butterfly diversity was surveyed in Cotton University Campus, Guwahati, Assam. A total of 39 species and 511 individuals were recorded, Psyche being the most dominant butterfly species (n=47). The maximum number of species encountered was in family Nymphalidae (n=14) while minimum in family Hesperidae (n=3). Number of individuals encountered was maximum in family Pieridae (n=158) while minimum in family Hesperidae (n=4). Diversity was most in the family Nymphalidae (H=2.33, D=8.81) while least in family Hesperiidae (H=1.04, D=2.67). Evenness was maximum in the family Hesperiidae, (EH=0.95, ED=0.89) while minimum in family Papilionidae. (EH = 0.73 and ED= 0.55).
Natural drugs play important and vital role in the modern medicine. They cure ailments which may not be treated by conventional medicine and exhibit many biological activities like antimicrobial. The purpose of our study is to screen phytochemicals and to determine antibacterial activity of hexane, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of Tribulus terrestris leaves against five pathogens (Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus). The extracts were prepared by cold maceration and the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using agar well diffusion method. The inhibition zones were measured for five concentrations (10 mg, 5 mg, 2.5 mg, 1.25 mg and 0.625 mg) of the extract. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenols, carbohydrates, flavones, saponins, steroids, alkaloids, proteins, quinones and tannins. In antibacterial assay, inhibition zones were detected in all extracts and in all concentrations. Large zones were formed in hexane and diethyl ether extracts. As the concentration of extract increased, the diameter of inhibition zones around the well also increased. Hence our results support the use of all the four extracts of Tribulus terrestris as a source of antibiotic substance for the possible treatment of human pathogenic organisms.
Tea is one of major cash crop of Darjeeling foothills and adjoining areas. Herbivore Insects prefer to feed on that sort of food to which it can best suit. The nutritive quality of tea plant is probably seldom optimal in terms of meeting the herbivores nutritional requirements. The present study reveals that the late instar of looper caterpillar prefers to feed on TV1, variety specifically on 3rd and 4th mature leaves. The percentage study also revealed the presence of non-digestible matter mostly in 3rdand4thleaf of TV1.The feeding of the 1stinstar caterpillar which among the 3 varieties feed in least quantity on TV1. TV1 leaves are known to contain tough fibres rather than TV18and TV25. One reason regarding the non-preference of TV1 may be due to its poorly developed jaw apparatus of the earlier instars to appropriate foliage with tough fibers. Whereas in case of middle instar preference to TV25 has been found as compared to TV1and TV18.Though the cellulose content of the 3rd& 4th leaves of TV18 is alike or higher than TV25 but may be due feeding stimulant or some other reasons the middle instars have to prefer the leaves of TV25 than TV1 and TV18. So, a study of host plant selection and basis of selection plays a significant role in phytophagous insects for better utilization of their resources.
The present study analyzes the adverse events caused by the psychotropic drugs during their prevalence. In our study the most commonly prescribed was atypical antipsychotics followed by benzodiazepines, SSRI and others. In the category of antipsychotic drugs the most commonly prescribed was quitiapine and olanzapine which contributed a major part of ADR. Drugs in the atypical antipsychotics like aripiprazole, ziprasidone were prescribed among the 120 patients and proved to have very minimal or no ADR. The drug adverse effects such as cardiotoxicity, particularly arrhythmia could be prevented or minimized by following preventive measures. The usage of safer agents like aripiprazole would help in minimizing the drug adverse interactions. The newly discovered second generation antipsychotic drugs have reduced the incidence of Extra Pyramidal Symptoms (EPS) to the maximum limitation. These results showed that the patients with EPS should be treated with second generation drugs.
Backgrounds and Aims: The global chemistry of seawater is changing due to the uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by ocean surface waters. Marine organisms can be exposed to oxidative stress under a variety of severe environmental conditions including Ocean Acidification (OA). The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of ocean acidification on Perna viridis using indicators of oxidative stress and to better understand how oxidative stress affects total antioxidant capacity.
Methodology and Results: Mussels were subjected to acidic seawater at pH levels of 8.1, 7.7, 7.4, and 7.1 for 30 days to assess oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). The protein's carbonyl, malondialdehyde, and thiol groups were evaluated as markers of oxidative stress. Antioxidant defense was evaluated as total antioxidant capacity. Fifteen and thirty days after ocean acidification, mussel blood lymph showed significant induction of carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxides, and thiol groups. After 30 days of exposure to OA, the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the mussels haemolymph was significantly modulated.
Conclusion: Current studies have shown a strong association between oxidative stress and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in mussels exposed to ocean acidification. Overall, the data suggest that haemolypmh is the most susceptible component to oxidative damage, it also suggests that the entire antioxidant capacity of P. viridis can be used as a biomarker for ocean acidification (OA).
The present study was undertaken in order to determine the seasonal changes in biochemical constituents in different body tissues of freshwater mollusc, Mytilus viridis from river Godavari, near Aurangabad. The study was conducted during all the three seasons for twelve months. This study has shown that seasonality is related to significant alterations in the biochemical constituents of soft body tissues. The result showed maximum amount of protein in gonads, where as minimum protein was found in mantle, during all the three seasons. Animal showed large fluctuation in the amount of glycogen present in all the four body tissues. During the summer season, maximum amount of glycogen was found in foot, whereas in the winter season mantle and foot showed presence of highest amount of glycogen. Lipids were found to be in maximum amount in mantle and foot during summer season and gonad showed maximum values of lipids during monsoon and winter seasons.
The present study based on the data for 5 years deals with the role of a minor reservoir in fish production and the influence of stocking densities on fish production. Nagulakunta, a minor reservoir with 10 ha of water spread is located in Vinjapally village of Siddipet District. The minor reservoir is treated as stocking and capture system for development of the fisheries. The overall major carp production is 465.88kg/ha/yr, and that of the rest being 56.25 kg/ha/yr. The total fish production is 513.13 kg/ha/yr. The major carp production increased significantly from 13.43 to 98.02%, and that of others decreased drastically from 86.57 to 1.98%. The major carp seed (20 – 40 mm fry) alone was stocked in the reservoir with overall stocking rate of 5892 fry/ ha/ yr. The major carp production considerably increased with stocking and the maximum yield of carps was recorded at a stocking density of 8500 fry/ha/yr. It is concluded that Nagulakunta is productive reservoir in terms of fish production.
Introduction: The majority of chronic inflammatory diseases were due to tubercular etiology. The most noteworthy sonographic findings of tuberculous epididymitis were enlarged epididymis, marked heterogeneity of echo-texture of involved epididymis, obliteration of interface between testis and epididymis, hypo-echoic nodular lesions within the testis and occasionally micro-calcification. On color Doppler sonography, spotty or focal linear Doppler signals may be seen at the periphery of the epididymis.
Methods: 100 scrotal pathology cases have been considered for study wherein high-frequency real-time grey-scale ultra-sonography along with color doppler sonography study have been conducted. The study time frame was October 2018 to March 2020.
Results: Inflammatory scrotal malformation was detected on high frequency ultrasonography (HF US) and Doppler in 40 out of 100 case studies.
Conclusion: HF US enables and empowers to unmistakably exhibit the primary changes related with intense scrotal incendiary infections, and shading Doppler is profoundly touchy in investigating intense scrotal pathology.
The weevil, Myllocerus fotedari Ahmad (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is being reported as new pest of Chinese rose, Rosa Chinensis Jacq. in Kashmir, India. It was found damaging the rose plants at different locations in Kashmir (India). Since the weevil is major pest of walnut, the rose plants grown near walnut trees have been found more vulnerable to weevil infestation. The nature and extent of damage and morphological features of this weevil have also been studied. Further investigation is required for understanding the polyphagous nature of this species.
Ketamine hydrochloride at the dose levels of 1mg and 3mg/100 g body weight was administered to normal cycling rat for 20 days through intraperitoneal routes. At autopsy on 21st day significant reduction in the ovarian and uterine weight was observed. Histological observations showed decrease in the number and size of graafian follicles, corpora lutea and increase in the atretic follicles in the ovary. The uterus showed absence of endometrial glands, decrease in the height of myometrium, endometrium and its epithelial cells. The total protein and glycogen content of the ovary and uterus is decreased whereas the cholesterol content is increased. This action of ketamine hydrochloride to gonadotrophins is discussed.
Haemonchosis is a disease caused by the pathogenic nematode Haemonchuscontortus. This disease is wide spread and considered as an economically important disease of domestic ruminants worldwide. The present study deduces the effect of Punicagranatum on the detoxification enzyme ‘Glutathione S- transferase’ (GST) of Haemonchuscontortus. GST plays a crucial role in detoxification of various toxic metabolites in helminth parasites. Parasites incubated in various sub-lethal concentrations (10, 20 and 30 %) of P. granatum juice (PJ) caused significant inhibition in the GST activity of H. contortus. Inhibition in the GST activity of H. contortus deprive the parasites of its major defence mechanism and emulate the toxic metabolites which may be lethal to them. An in silico docking study was carried out to identify the potential phytochemicals in the fruit juice of P. granatum against the target protein GST(PDB ID: 2WS2) isolated from H. contortus using SwissDock online resource. The phytochemicals were screened based on their binding energies (-∆G Kcal/mol). Docking studies revealed that flavonoids such as Rutin, Procyanidin, Isoquercetin and Epigallocatechin 3-gallate have excellent binding capability in contrast to tannins and alkaloids. The presence of flavonoid derivatives in the fruit juice of P. granatum may exert antinematodal efficacy against H. contortus. Further investigations on the in vitro and In vivo activity of these compounds may throw light on the optimisation of their formulations and concentrations, which is necessary for the development of potent anthelmintic drug.
Nutritive value of mulberry leaf is a key factor besides environment and technology adoption for better growth and development of the silkworm larvae. The present study deals with the effect of micronutrient supplemented mulberry leaves on the biochemical characteristics of PM´CSR2 hybrid variety of mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori fifth instar larvae. The field experiment was laid out in a randomized block design with twelve treatments including a control (T0 to T11), and the treatments were replicated thrice. Each treatment was supplemented with the desired quantity of the respective micronutrient in single or in combination. Twenty early Bombyx mori fifth instar larvae in plastic trays were used for each replicate of the respective treatment, and were fed with the 5-6 fully grown mature mulberry leaves (T0 to T11) twice a day (morning and evening). The amount of carbohydrate and protein present in haemolymph, silk gland, fat body and muscle, and the amount of lipid, trehalose and glycogen in haemolymph and fat body of the fifth instar larvae of control and treated group were estimated. Maximum carbohydrate content in the haemolymph, silk gland, fat body and muscle of the fifth instar Bombyx mori was observed in T9 (195.0 ±7.07mg/mL), both T8 and T9 (190 ±13.13mg/g), T8 (245.0 ±49.49mg/g) and T9 (152.5 ±16.6mg/g) respectively, and for the maximum protein content, the respective values were in T9 (158.0 ±31.11mg/mL), T9 (172.0 ±11.31mg/g), T8 (166.0 ±76.36mg/g) and T9 (195.0 ± 86.26mg/g). The maximum lipid, trehalose and glycogen in haemolymph was observed in T8 (5.96 ±1.40mg/mL), T3 (7.66 ±1.25mg/mL) and T5 (1.30 ±2.51mg/mg/mL) respectively, and for maximum content in fat body, the respective values were observed in T6 (16.87 ±1.20mg/mL), T9 (7.91 ±0.24mg/mL) and T8 (11.87 ±0.10mg/mL) Overall results of the present study emphasized that supplemented micronutrients in T9 (CuSO4 15Kg/ha + ZnSO4 15Kg/ha + FeSO4 30Kg/ha) followed by T8 (CuSO4 10Kg/ha + ZnSO4 10Kg/ha + FeSO4 20Kg/ha) positively influenced the biochemical characteristics of Bombyx mori fifth instar larvae.
Owing to the fact that the application of chemical pesticides cause adverse effects on beneficial organisms, pollute the environment and are detrimental to human health, plant based products are being tested for the control of variety of insect pests. The present study was carried out to test and compare the bioefficacy of chloroform solvent extracts of Cassia fistula and Calophylluminophyllum against Orychtesrhinocerous larvae The leaves of these two plants were dried, powdered and extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus using chloroform as the solvent. These leaf extracts exhibited dose-dependent mortality. The rate of mortality also increases with the increasing hours of exposure indicates more sensitivity.The plant extracts alters the Total Hemocyte Count and Differential hemocyte count. The increased mortality may be due to its antifeedant activity or may be due to its altering the physiological activity and endocrine glands which secretes regulatory hormone.Of these two plants C. inophyllum is more effective than C. fistula.Thus from the work it is concluded C. fistula and C. inophyllum showed varying degree of toxicity and can be used in Integrated Pest Management of O.rhinocerous and minimise use of chemical insecticides.
Retraction Notice: This paper has been retracted from the journal after receipt of written complains. This journal is determined to promote integrity in research publication. This retraction is in spirit of the same. After formal procedures editor(s) and publisher have retracted this paper on 21th April-2022. Related policy is available here: https://tinyurl.com/mbi-retraction
Breast cancer is recorded as the one of the most common carcinomas in woman and causing approximately 22% death in female population worldwide. Nearly, 26% of the women are affected in developing and under developed countries. The areas of affluent populations with high risks are North America, Europe, and Australia. The breast cancer evolved as a commonest cancer among Indian women and followed by cervix cancer. Nationally, 19-34% of all cancer accounts among women. All the data are collected from in our country of India. In the present study, 80 cases of Invasive carcinoma of breast were studied. 50 cases were subjected to immune histochemistry Non-biotin HRP system is superlative system for diagnosing the BC and the results showed that the p53 oncoprotein over expression was 30%. Nuclear p53 accumulation can be associated with high morphological grade in general and with tumor cell proliferation and not necessarily with biological aggressiveness. P53 over expression was significantly seen in poorly differentiated nuclear grade tumors.
Sustainability of fish resources is a major concern across the globe. There are varying factors that affect the sustainability of fish resources, the major contributors being anthropogenic activities that affect both climate change and its impact on the ocean biota results in declining fish resources. It is therefore imperative to develop sustainability measures of capture fisheries that reflects the impact of current fishery practices. The need to address this lacuna led to the development of sustainability measures in relation to fishing pressures. Therefore, this study aims to propose a procedure essential to develop a measurement based on relative prominence of fish varieties based on observed landings, as an indicator for sustainable operational practices vis-a-vis fishing pressure. Fish landing data was obtained from the Department of Fisheries, Govt. of Maharashtra, for three decades i.e from 1982-83 to 2011-12, collected from the four fish landing centres viz. Burondi, Dabhol, Mirkarwada and Ratnagiri (Jaitapur/Nate) in Ratnagiri District. Using ‘Pareto’s 80-20 Rule’ the prominent fishes in the landings were categorized into two groups viz. most prominent and trivial. The analysis reveals that nine to eleven fishes in the first decade of study were contributing to 80% of the total landings, however in the third decade it was observed that six to nine fish varieties were contributing to 80% of the landings, clearly indicating the fishing pressures. The findings on landings of non-penaeid prawns showed a declining trend. Non-penaeid prawns being most prominent in the first decade became trivial during the third decade. Similar trends were also seen in case of some other fishes such as, other clupeids, catfish, tunnis and seer fish. In this study Pareto’s Rule was used as a device, an indicator to measure trends in fishing pressure and fish diversity affecting sustainable marine landings in the district. Furthermore, forecast for the developed measurement were obtained for next two decades using the Drift Forecast Method as well as the Regression Analysis. Moreover, the forecast and predicted values were compared with actual marine fish landing data which was observed during 2012-13 to 2018-19. The derived measurements provide insightful observations and helps in understanding the level of sustainability across various landing centers. Furthermore, the derived measurements indicate Mirkarwada landing center to be fully exploited followed by Dabhol, whereas Burondi and Ratnagiri (Jaitapur/Nate) show high future potential in terms of fish catch landings.
The Labeo rohita is a significant aquaculture freshwater species in South Asia for its rich protein and financially significant fish species which comprise about 35% of complete Indian major carps (IMCs) production in India. PTC (Pretilachlor) is a selective pre-eminent herbicide generally connected to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in rice field. The goal of the present examination was to research the sub-acute toxic impacts of pretilachlor on a cultivable fish Labeo rohita (L. rohita) in gill, liver and kidney. The animals were separated into four gatherings; control, Treatment I, Treatment II and Treatment III. L. rohita were exposed to PTC at a centralization of 1 mg/L (Treatment I), 3.9 mg/L (Treatment II) and 5.9 mg/L (Treatment III) for a time of 7, 14 and 21 days in gill, liver and kidney uncovered various adjustments were seen in PTC treated groups when contrasted with control groups. A noteworthy (P<0.05) diminished levels of AST and ALT was seen in PTC treated all the groups of gill, liver and kidney when contrasted with control. Similarly, enzymatic antioxidant levels also additionally diminished in gill, liver and kidney of PTC treated each of the three groups when contrasted with control. Be that as it may, LPO level was fundamentally (P<0.05) increased in gill, liver and kidney of all the three PTC treated gathering when contrasted with control with the critical (P<0.05) damages in the histology of gill, liver and kidney. Taking everything into account, PTC treatment altogether harm the all the three organ, for example, gill, liver and kidney by means of its intense ROS interceding poisonous quality in fish L. rohita.
Aquatic water resources play vital role in maintaining environmental sustainability. Surface water bodies like lakes and tanks are degraded by increased industrial activities and urban runoff which deteriorate the water quality and their environment. Phytoplanktons are the autotrophic components of the plankton community and form the important part of the aquatic food chain. Aquatic environmental productivity is directly associated with phytoplankton density. Physico-chemical factors are directly related to their production. The temperature is found to be the main driving force for phytoplankton dominance. The members of phytoplankton community are important for their role in food production and energy transfer in trophic dynamics and water ecosystems. In the pollution study, they are represented as biological indicators of water quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytoplankton diversity for a period of two years from February 2014 to January 2016 in Kunigal tank and to assess the species composition and seasonal variations of this faunal group. The water samples were collected from five sampling sites between 7 am to 9 am on monthly basis. From each sampling site, 50 liters of water sample were collected, filtered through 60μm mesh size plankton net. The concentrated water sample was fixed and preserved in 4% formalin. one ml of concentrated sample was transferred into Sedge-wick Rafter cell and counted under Olympus binocular microscope. The results revealed the occurrence of 62 species of phytoplanktons belonging to five groups - Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Desmidaceae and Euglenophyceae. Chlorophyceae is represented by 16 species belonging to 15 genera, Bacillariophyceae is represented by 12 species belonging to 9 genera, Cyanophyceae is represented by 18 species belonging to 17 genera, Desmidaceae is represented by 12 species belonging to 8 genera and Euglenophyceae is represented by 4 species belonging to 2 genera. Among these, Chlorophyceae shows its dominance. The percentage composition of phytoplankton species was found as Chlorophyceae>Bacillariophyceae > Cyanophyceae>Desmidaceae > Euglenophyceae. Shannon-Weiner Index value of phytoplanktons ranged between 2.0 - 3.0 and Simpson Index values are found between 0 and 1, which indicated the good diversity and light pollution level. The results of this study explained the diversity and pollution status of Kunigal tank and helps in implementing strategies for water quality management and productivity of the tank.
The current study's goal was to assess the effect of clove bud powder on analgesia, which had never been done before. In the rat formalin test, the normal saline through control group received normal saline (3 ml/kg). The second, and followed by third and fourth groups traditional ketorolac (1S mg/kg intra-peritoneal injection), syzygium aromaticum powder 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, respectively. The results found for the control showed a biphasic pam response with an instant and short torrent of activity lasting around the first 5 min, followed by a prolonged passes of activity starting at minute 11, peaking between 10 to 30 min. Tiny nociceptive performance was observed during a 5-min erratic between the 6-10 minutes. Our results revealed that the nociception seen in phase 1 is a result of direct nerve stimulation by the formalin. Further, it has been demonstrated that the nociception produced in phase 2 of the formalin test is a result of chemical insult resulting in tissue damage.
Physical, chemical and biogeochemical variables were studied in the surface waters of three coastal areas characterized by different degrees of pollution (the Sfax Northern (NC) and Southern coasts (SC) and the Ghannouch area of Gabes (GA)) during October and November 2014 in order to identify pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs and depict their spatial distribution. The SIAPE (SC) and the GCT (GA) were the main sources of inorganic pollutants such as PO43-, HCO3-, Cl- and SO42-. High contents in total polyphenolic and flavonoid compounds were observed in the SC due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins, notably contributing to the increase of COD concentration. The BOD5/COD ratio was < 0.5 for 50% of stations; it thus underscored a pollution of chemical origin. The COD/BOD5 ratio was > 3 just for 30% of the SC stations which underlined an organic load resistant to biodegradation due to the high content in polyphenolic compounds.
The ancient tribal living habits contain many traditions within themselves. Fish is an integral part of the tribal society, these societies mainly use naturally available food items which are not normally easily available elsewhere. Traditionally, fishing techniques are mainly used either for their own consumption. But sometimes it has some commercial importance. Traditionally, fishing techniques are mainly used by the local people and ethenic groups. Gleaning net fishing, use of arrows, set of barriers and mobile trap, fish poisoning spear fishing are some of the traditional fishing methods. They are commonly called Sechna, Thapa, Pelna, Bisar, Dandar, Sodiya in the local language. Traditional fishing methods have far less adverse effects on fish than modern trading methods. The main purpose of fishing with such techniques is domestic consumption, which is a good and cheap source of protein for the poor. Generally in the rainy season, these traditional techniques are used extensively in both stagned and running water sources. In the present study the description of the traditional fishing practices of “Shahdol division of Madhya Pradesh”.
Animal derived natural products contributed a major part in traditional medicine to prevent inflammation related diseases. The majority of clinically important medicines belong to steroidal or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory chemical therapeutic for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases and has severe side effects. Molluscs are rich in biologically active natural products that provide new potential sources of anti-inflammatory agents. The present study investigates the anti-inflammatory activity of freshwater snail (Pila globosa) through various in vitro models. Results of the present study concluded that snail shows potential anti-inflammatory activity was observed in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory activity in higher doses (500mg/ml) of snail homogenate was similar to standard drug as Diclofenac sodium. This study is the scientific report that provides the convincing anti-inflammatory activity of snail evidence for scientific validity to its traditionally used by the local populace of south India.
Wetlands act as ecotone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems and play very important role in the environment. India is endowed with large number of floodplain wetlands which are an integral component of long river basins of the country. Murshidabad district of West Bengal has many such floodplain wetlands formed from the Ganga and the Padma river basin and the Solua beel is one of them. A study on the water quality parameters, checklist of fishes and present status of the fishermen cooperative society (FCS) associated with the beel has been made using the standard methods. The study revealed that the water quality of Solua beel was mostly within the optimum range for the survival and growth of fishes and other aquatic organisms. High infestation of water hyacinth and aquatic macrophytes has also been observed. The checklist of fishes of the beel showed that there were altogether 49 species belonging to 21 families and 7 orders found in the beel. The highest percentage of the fish species has been found from the fish family Cyprinidae (35%) and the fish order Cypriniformes (43%). No exotic species has been found in the Solua beel. The beel has been under the control and management of Paharpur FCS Ltd since its formation in 1958. The assessment of the present status of the society revealed that fishermen members had very low literacy rate with very low income but the members had traditional knowledge of sustainable management of aquatic resources. The society was facing constraints in fish production due to sedimentation that led to decreased water flow to the beel from the connecting river, decline in fish species as well as high weed infestation in the beel. The paper also discusses about the utilization of traditional knowledge of the fishermen associated with various water bodies for sustainable management of floodplain wetlands and other aquatic resources and suitable recommendations have been made in this regard.
The Nymph of C. janus have three pairs of Orange coloured abdominal scent glands situated in the mid-dorsal region, underneath the tergum between the first and second, second and third, third and fourth, fourth and fifth segments. The first pair of glands are oval in shape (L 1.12±0.15mm, W 0.87±0.14mm,W 185.67± 18.60µg ) as compared to other pairs. These glands bears muscles that regulate ejection of their secretion. The second (L 2.07±0.21mmW 2.72±0.33mm,W 298.65±16.20 µg) and third ( L2.66±0.54mm,W 3.22±0.41mm,W 345.70±24.50 µg) abdominal scent glands are larger and roughly rectangular in shape and open dorsally separately on the tergum by two Ostioles. When the Nymph of bugs on being disturbed volatile scent is ejected out through a pair of ostioles.The scent secretion is defensive against predators.
This study is to analyse the antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of Clerodendrum infortunatum L. (Lamiaceae) and Vanda spathulata (L.) Spreng. (Orchidaceae) were investigated against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp. Disc diffusion method was adopted to determine antimicrobial activity against two microorganisms and 1.2% DMSO, Gentamycin and Ampicillin were used as control. The selection of extract was based on a phytochemical screening for the presence of secondary metabolites. The ethanolic extracts of C. infortunatum and V. spathulata showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, triterpenoids, and cardiac glycosides. C. infortunatum and V. spathulata showed zone of inhibition against the two bacterial strains. The ethanolic extract of V. spathulata showed the maximum inhibition zone against Klebsiella sp. compared to C. infortunatum and higher zone of inhibition than antibiotic ampicillin. C. infortunatum has high zone of inhibition (10.3±0.47) against E. coli and V. spathulata has higher zone of inhibition (15.6±0.47) against Klebsiella sp. The results of this study showed that ethanolic extracts of C. infortunatum and V. spathulata used against E. coli and Klebsiellasp. has antibacterial activity. Although the use of these plants as antibacterial agents require extraction of its active compound and further explorations, these plants show promising antibacterial properties.
This study, for the first time, explored and identified the Hymenopteran insect biodiversity actively engaged in the pollination of Verbesina encelioides (Cavanilles) Bentham & Hooker (Asteraceae) in the Great Indian Desert of Thar in Rajasthan. This plant was observed as the principal source of nectar and pollen in the adverse conditions of the desert, hence need to be studied to establish a plant-insect relationship. The collection and identification of bees were done during the year 2019-20 which revealed that the flowers of Verbesina encelioides (Cavanilles) Bentham & Hooker attracted a total of 22 species of insect pollinators. Further identification studies showed that these 22 species belonged to 14 genera within six families. The identified genus was Apis Linnaeus (02 species), Braunaspis Michener (01 species), Campsomeriella Betrem(01 species), Ceratina Latreille (02 species), Halictus Latreille (02 species), Icteranthidium Michener (02 species), Megachile Latreille (03 species), Micromeriella Betrem(01 species), Nomia Latreille (02 species), Nomioides Schenck (01 species), Sphecodes Latreille (01 species), Trigonula Moure (01 species), Trachusa Panzer (01 species), Xylocopa Latreille (02 species). It was observed that the abundance of insect pollinators increased in the year 2020 as compared to 2019 because of decreasing anthropogenic activities and pollution in the study area due to COVID-19 lockdown. The higher value of the Simpson index of diversity i.e. 0.921 (2019) and 0.929 (2020) indicated that there was more than 92 % chance of capturing different insect species while random sampling. Shannon entropy (H) estimated were 2.79 and 2.86 respectively for the years 2019 and 2020. Results of Shannon entropy showed increased diversity of insects in the year 2020. Values of Gini indexes were 0.39 and 0.34 for the consecutive study years, representing inequality in the abundance distribution. The diversity of insect pollinators was also expressed by Renyi entropy (1.10; 1.5) and Hill number (16.31; 17.55) in the region. Verbesina encelioides (Cavanilles) Bentham & Hooker has been found as a good source of nutrition for the insect species in the Desert of Thar.
The mealy bug Phenacoccus madeirensis (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive exotic pest with an extensive host of more than 130 genera of host plants from 51 families P. madeirensis is considered one of the most economically significant pests of many fruits, fibre plants, food crops and vegetable crops etc. The damage is due to both nymphs and adult stage resulting withering and yellowing of leaves. The plant protection products are of limited effectiveness against mealy bugs because of their habit of hiding in crevices and the presence of waxy covering on its body. Several efforts were made to study the biology of the most abundant predator of the P. madeirensis in the Kolhapur district of Maharashtra. The present study was carried out during summer season (March- May 2019) in the laboratory of AGPM Department, Shivaji University, Kolhapur. The present study was conducted in an incubator under optimum constant laboratory conditions 27± ± 2ºC and 65± ± 5% R.H. The observed mean pre-oviposition period of the N. regularis was3was 3.4 ± 1.07 days, whereas the recorded oviposition period was32was 32.6 ± 2.59 days. The observed post oviposition period noticed about 20.4 ± 1.07 days. The average egg-laying was 92.7 ± 8.41 eggs/ female. The recorded mean incubation period was 5.2 ± 0.5 and the larval period lasts for about10about 10-13 days. The mean duration of pre-pupae and pupae was 1.5 ± 0.7 and 6.5 ± 0.8 days, respectively. The average longevity of male and female beetles noticed was 47.1 ± 1.7 and 58.4 ± 2.16 days respectively.
A study was carried out to investigate phytoplankton diversity in three different areas in Chatla floodplain lake (popularly known as Chatla Haor) in Cachar district of Assam, North East India over a period of one year (four seasons) (March, 2019-February, 2020). Composition, density and diversity of phytoplankton community were studied in relation to physicochemical characteristics of water. Phytoplankton community was comprised of 36 taxa out of which 19 belonged to Chlorophyceae, 10 to Cyanophyceae, 6 to Bacillariophyceae and 1 to Euglenophyceae. The most common genera belonging to Chlorophyceae are Chlorella, Desmidium, Microspora, Spirogyra, and Zygnema, that belonging to Cyanophyceae are Anabaena, Nostoc, and Spirulina, that belonging to Bacillariophyceae are Cymbella, Navicula, Nitzschia, and Synedra, and that belonging to Euglenophyceae are Euglena. In terms of relative abundance, Chlorophyceae was highest and Euglenophyceae was lowest in all the three sites. Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest in Site II and lowest in Site III. The value for one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was significant at 1% probability level for both phytoplankton classes and phytoplankton species.
Mosquitoes are considered as the dominant hematophagous insect which are responsible for transmitting various vector borne diseases such as Japanese encephalitis, Dengue fever, Malaria, Yellow fever, Chikungunya, Zika etc and majority of these horrible diseases will adversely affect the peoples inhabiting both tropical and subtropical regions. The existence of co-evolution between plants and insects influences the production of secondary plant compounds or extracts which retard the growth of these dreadful vectors. Such green insecticides are very effective and considering an important ecofriendly tool for eradicating the mosquitoes. These larvicidal activities are more feasible for vector control strategy as compared to artificial insecticides. The present study aimed to investigate the larvicidal activity of plant extract from the leaves of Catharanthus roseus, Lantana camara and Carica papaya against third and fourth instar stages of mosquito larvae. The healthy larvae were collected and tested with the mashed leaf extracts of different concentrations (1 mg/ml, 2 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) for different exposure time such as 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours after which the mortality rate (%) of larvae were analysed. The percentages of larval mortality and standard deviations were calculated for each concentration of the leaf extracts. The results clearly indicated that the extract concentrations of both Catharanthus roseus and Lantana camara showed highest mortality rate (100%) than Carica papaya at the end of 72 hour of exposure. The variations exhibited in the mortality rates of Carica papaya were 43.33%, 63.33% and 86.66% in 1mg/ml, 2mg/ml and 3 mg/ml of leaf extracts respectively. Leaf extracts from Catharanthus roseus and Lantana camara indicated its potential larvicidal efficacy against mosquito larvae. The outcome of the study specified that the leaf extracts have a significant role for monitoring and regulating the vector borne mosquito larvae with an ecofriendly and effective manner.
Pharmacovigilance refers to research and practices relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related concern. A key concern with the sale of prohibited pharmaceuticals over the counter in India is that there aren't enough adverse drug response (ADR) statistics on these drugs. The gastrointestinal system was the site of the majority of suspected ADRs, with patients reporting epigastric pain, nausea, and loose stools, followed by dermatological symptoms such as rashes, pruritus, and so on. The respiratory, auditory, immune, and central nervous systems were also implicated. Every drug reaction was double-checked with the treating physician and the literature. Antibiotic fixed dose combinations and non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug fixed dose combinations produced the most ADRs, followed by analgesics and antipyretics fixed dose combinations, fluoroquinolones, and antihypertensive fixed dose combinations.
Hypselobarbus procerus, a new cyprinid fish, is described from Bhavani River at Attappady hills in Kerala, India. It is a congener species of Hypselobarbus jerdoni and H. carnaticus of south Indian water bodies. It can be set apart from its relative species in having a silvery, deeper body, osseous, very strong last simple dorsal fin ray, 30- 32 lateral line scales, 7-8 branched pelvic rays and long anal fin with five branched rays reaching to caudal fin base. Hypselobarbus procerus is an edible fish. The new specie is described, scientifically named, taxonomically analyzed and compared with its congeners.
Aims: Production of Silver Nanoparticles by Arabic gum extract on the Inhibition of the production of Fumonisin B1 by Fusarium Oxysporum
Study Design: The quality of silver nanoparticles AgNPs biosynthesized by Arabic gum was assessed, and the efficacy of silver nanoparticles in inhibiting the production of Fumonisin B1by Fusarium Oxysporum was also evaluated.
Methodology: The production of silver nanoparticles was mix 4ml of Arabic gum extract and fill the volume to 5.5 ml of distilled water, then the pH is equalized by sodium hydroxide NaOH, then 1ml of silver nitrate AgNO3 is added at a concentration of 0.2 ml, then the mixture is put on a heater at a temperature of 90 ° C for a period of time. 2 hours and wait for the color to change.
Results: The results indicated the efficacy of Arabic gum extract in producing silver nanoparticle . Findings also confirmed product quality dependent on Characterization of bio synthesized AgNPs depending on the physical characteristics including UV- Spectrophotometer analysis that showed peak at 420nm wavelength , Scanning Electron Microscopy Test (SEM) showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical in shape and have a diameter ranging between 50-30nm, The results of Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed the presence of a wide band of hydroxyl groups present in Arabic gum , which act as reducing agents to form SNPS , The results of X-Ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the highest diffraction peaks are at 111 and 200 at angles 44, 38ᶿ and that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature.. The results showed that all nano-treatments inhibited the production of Fumonisin B1.
Conclusion: The study was conducted in the advanced fungi laboratory in the College of Education for Girls, University of Kufa. Isolation of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was obtained from Dr. Ali Faraj Jubeir, College of Agriculture, University of Al-Muthanna .
Present study deals with the traditional knowledge of dry fish product preparation and preservation by Mising Tribe in Gohpur subdivision. The Mising community is well acquainted with indigenous knowledge of fish preservation and engaged in practices like fishing and agriculture. Namsing is an old and indigenous dry fish product prepared by Mising people, having unique taste, flavor and high nutritional value. Namsing preparation includes drying; smoking and fermentation. These are considered as a wonderful eco-friendly traditional method that conserves the food taste and nutrients for longer period of time. From the nutritional point of view, Namsing comprises of high protein (54.47%) with low lipid (10.57%) as compared to the individual dry fish nutrition value is an unique characteristics recorded in the present study.
The present study was to investigate the effect of Pretilachlor (PTC) in 7, 14 and 21 days with 3 different concentrations in fish Labeo rohita (L.rohita) in. The creatures were divided into four groups including control, Treatment I (1 mg/ L), Treatment II (3.9 mg/ L) and Treatment III (5.9 mg/ L). L. rohita were exposed to PTC for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days when compared to the control group. The blood tube glucose, protein, Hb, Hct, and erythrocytes situations were significantly (P<0.05) dropped throughout the treatment period when compared with the control for a period of 7, 14 and 21 days. Whereas, the values of erythrocyte and leukocytes indicators (MCV, MCHC, and MCH) were increased significantly (P<0.05) in pretilachlor treated groups (I, II and III) when associated with the control group. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes that pretilachlor at tested groups for a period of 7, 14 and 21 altered the haematological and biochemical parameters serve as an effective test system for environmental threat assessment of the submarine terrain.
This study investigated possible correlation between blood groups and personality traits within a population of Darbhanga, Bihar.The five factor model (FFM) has been considered by psychologists as a popular and powerful approach for the study of personality traits. These include neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Recognition of blood groups could help in the recognition personality traits. This is a possible correlation between the major personality traits with blood groups within a population of Darbhanga, Bihar. After testing blood groups of participants (A, B, AB, and O) and then completed the 44-item inventory was used for data collection(John and Srivastava, 1999), considered as a reliable and valid assessment tool of the five traits of personality. Participants responded to each item using a five-point Like scale, 1)Disagree strongly 2).Disagree little 3).Neither agree nor disagree 4)Agree a little 5.)Agree strongly. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics including frequency distribution tables, mean, standard deviation, one-way ANOVA tests and post hoc LSD tests. Mean Score of neuroticism in blood groups O,AB,B,A was 24.96,24.81,24.18 and23.38respectively. Mean Score of extraversion in A,O,AB,B blood groups was 31.79,30.42,29.80 and 29.68respectively. Mean Score of openness in blood groups A,O,B,AB was 26.75,26.20,25.79and24.84 respectively. Means Score of agreeableness in blood groups A,AB, B, O was 31.27,30.45,30.19 and 29.65 respectively. And conscientiousness in blood groups A,O, AB,B was the 36.74,35.56,34.16 and 34.08 respectively.
From the big five personality traits, the three factors of Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness showed no relationship with blood groups. However, both Extraversion and Openness were linked with different blood groups. It is hoped that such type of study will be helpful in establishing the scientific correlation between blood groups and personality traits in the inhabitant’s of Darbhanga, Bihar.The findings can be used to correlate the blood groups and personalities in accurate manner on the basis of such type of study.Much more studies are still required to explore the blood group and personality traits with certain special geographical regions.
Fish diversity can alter according to different seasons’ pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon. Different seasons showed varied trace element concentrations which correlated with fish diversity. We studied the seasonal variations of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ca and Zn in Kuttanad aquatic system. Trace element analysis was conducted by AAS for three years. Trace elements showed a significant correlation with fish diversity in different seasons.
The presence of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment raises serious concern about their effects on humans and other living organisms. Bisphenol-A is a highly controversial endocrine disruptor that is ubiquitous in the environment. The large-scale production of Bisphenol-A and its subsequent release into the environment far exceeds its removal by natural processes. Within the body, Bisphenol-A’s agonistic and antagonistic attributes are known to disturb the action of several hormones and interfere with lipid homeostasis in several species. Liver is the major organ for lipid metabolism. Bisphenol-A exposure causes lipid accumulation in the liver. In this study we investigated the effects of 15 days and 30 days exposure to Bisphenol-A on lipid ratios in Channa punctatus and histopathological alterations in the liver of exposed fish. We observed significant changes in the lipid ratios and concentration dependent hepatic steatosis. This study shows that Bisphenol-A exposure leads to dyslipidemia in fish and may result in symptoms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
The present observation focuses on the fecundity of Noemacheilus denisonii Day in the snow-fed Yamuna river from Doon valley, India. The fecundity of Noemacheilus denisonii Day ranged from 139 to 2015 in fish that measured 50mm to 75mm in length. The weight of the fish has a greater impact on fecundity than any other body parameters.
Habitat catch composition is often an ignored aspect when commenting on the marine fish landings in the coastal regions. The statistical measures applied in this study attempts to reveal the sustainability status of fisheries in landing centres of Ratnagiri district of MS for thirty-seven years (1982-83 to 2018-19) in terms of Pelagic v/s Demersal fish variety stocks. Additionally, it also captures the status of fisheries in terms of its habitat, thereby implying the nature of the fisheries stocks categorized as declining, stable or transitional. Using Shannon entropy, a measure for sustainability index was calculated w.r.t Pelagic v/s Demersal varieties of the landings. Furthermore, a pressure index is suggested to assess the impact of variation in contribution of Pelagics and Demersals in the total landings.
The present study was an attempt to assess the butterfly diversity in Kodiyeri, Thalassery municipality, Kannur district in Kerala. The data was obtained by trapping and sweeping net method from August 2020 to May 2021. Totally 57 species of butterflies representing from 5 major families were recorded. Family Nymphalidae represented the maximum of species followed by Lycaenidae- 16 species, Hesperidae- 8 species, Pieridae -7 species and 6 species from the family of Papilionidae. All families were found maximum during October and it may be due to the availability of nectar as many shrubs were actively blooming. Out of the 57 species recorded, five of them are included in the schedule I category and one species in schedule II of Wild Life Protection Act 1972. Castalius rosimon, Neptis columella, Papilio clytia, Hypolimnas misippus, Pachilopta hector and Lampides boeticus are the identified species which include in WPA status.
Pesticides usage in agricultural fields to control pests is extremely toxic to non-target organisms like fish and affects fish health through impairment of histological structure, sometimes leading to mortality. The histopathological study reveals the potential adverse effects of Phosphamidon, an organophosphate pesticide, on a fresh water fish, Anabas testudineus and it document a dose- dependent reaction of liver and kidney histology. The histological changes observed in liver included fatty-vacuolation and the displacement of nuclei to the periphery of the hepatocytes, congested and constricted liver sinusoids, condensed hepatocytes, destructed cell membrane, necrosis and neoplasm. The major histological alterations identified in the kidney were shrinkage of renal tubules and glomeruli, presence of melano-macrophage centres and degeneration of renal tubules. Histopathology can be used as a tool for assessing the sublethal conditions of water quality and it gives a "rapid early warning system".
Background: Benign breast diseases include infections, granulomatous inflammatory disorders, lipomas, fibrocystic disease, and fibroadenomas. Studies involving underserved populations living in rural areas reported from medical institutions situated in their localities are scarce.
Materials and Methods: We aimed to determine the proportion of benign breast diseases in a rural hospital during the COVID pandemic. A retrospective analysis of all breast disorders treated in the Department of Surgery between 01 April 2020 to 31 March 2021 was performed. Using biopsy and fine needle aspiration (FNA) registers and manually extracted case files, information such as demographic parameters, clinical history, physical examination, and investigations were obtained. The curated data was then analyzed using IBM SPSS for Windows version 22.
Results: There were 36 patients in our study, with the majority (32; 88.9%) being women. The mean age and duration of symptoms of the study population were 39.19±13.90 (range, 15-74 years) and 4.6±4.8 months (range, two weeks to 24 months), respectively.
Conclusion: Even though the number of cases may be lower, the spectrum of benign breast diseases that included fibroadenoma, gynecomastia, fibrocystic disease, phyllodes, and granulomatous mastitis is similar to that of more extensive studies from other institutions.
Disease outbreaks increase proportionally with increasing intensive aquaculture. It is well known that many active compounds of medicinal plants are responsible for potential bio-activities. The treatment for ectoparasitic diseases in freshwater fish with formalin seems at present to be ineffective. For this reason, it is a useless cost. In addition, formalin possibly leaves toxic residues in the fish flesh and in the environment which are eventually harmful to consumers. The alternative way to solve this problem is to use a traditional medicinal plant. Trichodiniasis is one of the major diseases found in fish worldwide caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the phylum ciliophora. The purpose of this research is to determine the possibility of using garlic (Allium sativum) as optional chemicals to treat fish ectoparasites, Tripartiella spp. The results showed that crude extracts of garlic at 550 mg/l significantly (P < 0.05) eliminated Tripartiella spp. infections in fingerlings of Labeo rohita (average weight 15 ±0.03 g each). To evaluate the acute toxicity of these products to the host fish, groups of 20 fingerlings (same size as above) were exposed to 3 concentrations of the product mentioned for 96 h. Mortality was then determined. The 2 h LC50 for fingerlings exposed to a crude extract of garlic was 2.125 mg/L. This information is beneficial and fundamental knowledge to develop guidelines to reduce the use of chemicals and antibiotics in freshwater fish culture businesses.
Detailed biology of dermestid beetle,Dermestes ater was studied under differentexperimental conditions and on four different diets of animal origin.
There were 7 larval instars in all the experimental conditions. The incubation period varied, at room temperature 22.4 – 29.8o C (25.61 + 0.1) and humidity 47.5 – 86% (66 + 0.3) it was 5 – 8 (6.31 + 0.27) days, at constant temperature of 30o C and 65% RH it was 5 – 7 (5.69 + 0.24) days and at 35o C and 65% RH 4 – 5 (4.30 + 0.15) days.
Total life-cycle period under laboratory conditions, at room temperature 22.4 – 29.8o C (25.61 + 0.1) and relative humidity of 47.5 – 86% (66 + 0.3), at different temperature and relative humidity (30o C and 65% RH, 35o C and 65% RH) are as follows:
Total larval period was 43 – 56 (49.5 + 1.16), 38 – 45 (40.57 + 0.81) and 30 – 42
(35.8 + 2.13) days, pupal period was 8 – 11(9.5 + 0.36), 7 – 9 (7.71 + 0.36) and 5 – 7 (6.0+ 0.45) days and life-cycle period was 62 – 72 (65.42 + 0.96), 50 – 57 (54.29 + 0.84) and 42 – 53 (46.40 + 2.06) days respectively.
On dried silkworm pupae, dried silk moths, feathers of white leghorn and an equal mixture of fur of goat and sheep, total larval period was 39-53 (47.78 + 1.64), 41-56 (50.86 + 2.13), 34-61 (58.20 + 1.24) and 58-69 (63.50 + 2.26) days, pupal period was 8-11 (8.78 + 0.37), 8-11 (9.57 + 0.43), 9-11 (11.0 + 0.63) and 9-13(11.0 + 0.82) days, and life-cycle period was 55-71 (63.33 + 1.76) days 50 – 57 (54.29 + 0.84) days, 60-72 (67.29 + 1.66) days and (81.75 + 2.39) 76-87days respectively.
The integumentary system plays a significant role in the interactions with the environment in vertebrates. The integument part acts as the body envelope that protects and separates the individual from its environment and is an essential organ in communicating and sensing the outer atmosphere in fishes. The fish integument is a large organ covering all the body surfaces and lines the body openings. Thus they play a wide range of functions like protection, communication, sensory perception, respiration, locomotion, excretion, ion balance, and thermal regulation. For the present study, freshwater aquarium teleost fishes were collected from the local freshwater aquarium shops in and around Thiruvananthapuram. Our researchers collected eight teleost freshwater aquarium fishes from three different families (Cyprinidae, Osphronemidae, Poeciliidae) and qualitatively compared the morphology based on the observations and images captured using stereomicroscope and research microscope. The parameters used for comparison include scale shape and size, focus location, anterior margin shape, presence of lepidonts, tubercles, and ctenii. The relative size is also calculated to know the arrangement. The essential scales showing all the peculiar characteristics of scales such as caudal scale, dorsal scale, and median scales are analysed. This preliminary work might be helpful for further understanding the qualitative characters of different fishes.The qualitatively analyzed characteristics can be used in taxonomy and in studying more about the integumentary system of fish as well as in comparative studies with other vertebrate integumentary systems.
House sparrows are cavity-nesting urban birds. This study aims at identifying the natural nesting sites of house sparrows based on their structural preferences and distribution along the rural, suburban, and urban gradients in the Madurai district. A total of 169 study locations were surveyed between November 2020 and February 2021, using the line-transect method. Of these 169 sites, 132 were rural, 18 were suburban and 19 were urban gradients. The natural nesting behavior of the house sparrow was documented photographically. The data were analyzed using SPSS and Excel. Based on the obtained data, a total of 53 types of natural nesting sites were identified and classified as Cavity-type nesting sites in Building structures (CB), Cavity-type nesting sites in Non-Building structures (CNB), and Non-Cavity type nesting sites in Non-Building structures (NCNB). A total of 1820 natural nests were identified, wherein, 1338 natural nests were found in CB-type nesting sites which were of 19 different types, 253 were found in CNB-type nesting sites which were of 15 different types, and 229 nests in NCNB-type nesting sites which were of 19 different types. The most preferred nesting site in each of the groups was identified to be the space between wooden joists in buildings (CB), pipe holes in highway bridges (CNB), and electric meter boxes (NCNB). The CB-type nesting sites were found to be the most preferred nesting site along the rural, suburban, and urban gradients. The population of the house sparrow was found to have a strong positive correlation (R = 0.99) with the number of available natural nesting sites. Being an opportunistic secondary cavity-nesting bird, house sparrows exhibit nesting flexibility and adapt to non-cavity-type nesting sites when the cavity-type nesting sites were not available.
The present study aims to assess the distribution patterns, density, diversity and ecology of periphyton community in the Balkhila stream which is a glacier fed tributary of the Alaknanda river in Chamoli district of Uttarakhand. Periphyton are the algal communities attached to various submerged objects and contribute as food for zoobenthos and nektonic communities as well as a primary producer in an aquatic ecosystem. Population structure of the stream was represented by total 16 periphytic genera belonging to 3 classes viz., Bacillariophyceae (Cymbella, Navicula, Fragilaria, Nitzschia, Amphora, Diatoma, Synedra, Tabellaria, Cocconeis and Meridion), Chlorophyceae (Chlorella, Ulothrix, Zygnema Oedogonium and Spirogyra) and Myxophyceae (Phormidium). Bacillariophyceae emerged as dominating periphyton class throughout the year. Shannon- Wiener diversity Index and Margalef Index depicted that winter months were more conducive for the growth of periphyton. The multivariate SIMPLER test was performed to show the dissimilarity of periphyton. The multivariate cluster analysis among seasons was also performed. To study the abundance and distribution of periphytic communities in relation to various abiotic factors on seasonal basis, the multivariate canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was performed.
Use of traditional medicines to treat various diseases is gaining momentum in the recent days all over the world due to various reasons. In this context, the present research study was carried out to analyse the antioxidant property of two plant extracts which have broad history of traditional medicinal uses. Chrysopogon zizanioides and Acorus calamus plant root extracts were used for evaluation as a source of antioxidant in this study. The crude root extract of these two plant extract were investigated against the control and standard. From the results of the present study it is very clear that both Chrysopogon zizanioides and Acorus calamus have good radical scavenging activity and hence significant antioxidant property as per DPPH radical scavenging assay. Hence with this data we might conclude that both Chrysopogon zizanioides and Acorus calamus have useful antioxidant property.
With the accelerated pace of life in todays’ world, pressures and tensions increase and the feeling of stress increases. In laboratory rodents, the stress induced by restraining the animal is inspired like any fear, by the fear of not being able to escape a tetanizing signal; thus; putting the organism in a heightened state of anxiety. The aim of our work is to induce restraint stress in 12 female Wistar rats at two pressure sessions per day (morning-after noon) over a 10-day period in order to quantify its effect on the behaviour of Wistar rats, on the one hand through the Open Field test and the Plus Maze test , on the other hand, on the variations of biochemical parameters such as glucose and lipid profile .Our results reveal the detrimental effect of stress on behaviour as well as a disruption of biochemical metabolism represented by a decrease in cholesterol levels and an increase in triglyceride and blood sugar levels .This also reinforces the importance of a healthy lifestyle in maintaining good health and therefore physical health.
The Western Ghats has distributions different climatic changes in Palani hills of fresh water streams. During pandemic situations to study will be useful to carry physiochemical parameter determinations for the streams of Palani hills in South India. The water quality assessment to help understand the living bio-ecological condition of freshwater of streams fishes their struggle for polluted stream water after covid-19 pandemic situation and physiochemical parameters changes before pandemic and after pandemic period of covid-19 spreading in Tamilnadu. Palani hills fresh water streams will be made harmful bio ecological condition of palani hills and living endemic freshwater fishes and its biodiversity was affected and physiochemical parameter of streams of Palani hills in South India is scarce and received more attention during Pandemic situation, the analysis study would be useful to understand the conservation status of freshwater streams of Palani hills and endemic freshwater fishes.
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that also has a desiccant effect on crops. This herbicide could build up in it and be leached into groundwater without damaging or affecting agricultural plants. Freshwater organisms, which are not intended to be targets for these detrimental components, are exposed to these substances and may demonstrate a range of changes in their bodies. These toxins may potentially make their way into the human body via the food chain. The extent of gill damage produced by the lethal exposure to roundup of the freshwater crab Barytelphusa cunicularis (Westwood 1836) was determined using histological studies. This herbicide could build up in it and be leached into groundwater without damaging or affecting agricultural plants. Freshwater organisms, which are not intended to be target for these detrimental components, are exposed to these substances and may demonstrate a range of changes in their bodies. These toxins may potentially make their way into the human body via the food chain. The extent of gill damage produced by the lethal exposure to roundup of the freshwater crab Barytelphusa cunicularis (Westwood 1836) was determined using histological studies. The purpose of this study was to see how the herbicide roundup altered histology in the freshwater crab Barytelphusa cunicularis in various tissues. Epithelial lifting, edema, necrosis, fusion of secondary lamellae, bleeding, and vacuolization in the gill stem were all seen in the experimental gills. Over the course of 1 to 4 days of treatment, the experimental crabs subjected to fatal amounts of the roundup revealed significant histological alterations.
A study on moth diversity was carried out in the different forest areas of North-West Himalaya. Moths were collected from different forest areas such as deodar, chir pine, mixed, sal and teak of Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand by using light traps. A total of 61 moth species belonging to 53 genera, 21 sub-families and 11 families were recorded from different forest types of North-West Himalaya. The recorded moth families Erebidae (23 genera, 28 species in 6 subfamilies) and Geometridae (10 genera, 10 species in 3 subfamilies) were very frequent with a less frequent documentation from Crambidae (7 genera, 7 species in 2 subfamilies), Noctuidae (6 genera, 6 species in 4 subfamilies), Eupterotidae (1 genera, 3 species in 1 subfamily), Notodontidae (1 genera, 2 species in 1 subfamily), Drepanidae (1 genera, 1 species in 1 subfamily), Euteliidae (1 genera, 1 species in 1 subfamily), Hyblaeidae (1 genera, 1 species), Limacodidae (1 genera, 1 species in 1 subfamily) and Nolidae (1 genera, 1 species in 1 subfamily).
The most diverse family of moth species recorded in the study belonging to this family, Erebidae, 45.90% followed by Geometridae 16.39%, Crambidae 11.47%, Noctuidae 9.83%, Eupterotidae 4.91%, Notodontidae 3.27% and other families constituting 1.63%. The moth population were found highest in mixed forest as compared to species-specific forest tree species. The moth diversity was highest in the month of July-September and declined from October onwards. Along with this study, future studies on similar lines will help documenting the moth diversity of different forest types of India.
Labeorohita fingerlings (7.6 – 11.3 cm length and 16.1 – 26.7 g weight) were exposed for 96h to 0, 0.2 (LC10), 0.4 (LC30), 0.6 (LC55), 0.8 and 1 mg/l of Basic violet-1 (BV-1, CI No. 42535), a widely used azo dye in dyeing and textile industries. Antioxidant/detoxification enzymes such as glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated in liver, kidney, gill, muscle and brain of the fish as markers for the stress of BV-1. After 96h, the fish were kept for a recovery period of 30 days and activity of enzymes was determined at 15 day intervals. Significant dose dependent increase over control in the activity of GR was observed in all the tissues while a significant decrease over control was observed in SOD activity in all the tissues. The results indicate that the dye is very toxic to L. rohita as there was a marked change in the activity of selected enzymes in the exposed fish. Gill was maximally affected tissue whereas GR was maximally affected enzyme and the effect prolonged till the end of recovery period. So this enzyme in gill can be considered as best biomarker to determine toxicity of even very low doses of the azo dye BV-1 in fish.
Background: The current research explores theimprovementand neuroprotection effects of ginger extract and Nigella sativa oil on working memory and fills the knowledge gap on the neurotoxicity of inorganic mercury in Wistar rats.
Methods: The animals were divided into five equal groups, received by orally to 500 mg/kg/day of ginger extract, 2 ml/kg/day of Nigella Sativa oil for 28 consecutive days (01st – 28th day), and 4 mg/kg/day of mercuric chloride (HgCl2) for 21 consecutive days (08th – 28th day). The rats were exposed each on the 18th day and 28th day respectively in novel object recognition test (NOR) and spontaneous alternation behavior test (Y-maze Test).
Results: The rats were weighed on the 29th day and euthanized,the brains in each group were excisedand weighed.The results obtained show a significant decrease in the relativebrain weight in the rats treated with mercuric chloride alone compared to the control rats. The behavioral tests revealed a decrease in the recognition index and the spontaneous alternation in the group (M) compared to groups (T), (G+M), (N+M), and (G+N+M). The groups pretreated with ginger extract and Nigella Sativa oil reversed these cognitive impairments induced by HgCl2 and improved memorization.
Conclusion: We conclude that ginger extract and Nigella sativa oil exerts a neuroprotective and therapeutic effect against memory disorders induced by mercuric chloride.
This study shows the relationship between otolith morphometry and total fish length of 70 Rasbora daniconius ( Hamilton,1822) (Cyprinidae) specimens from Ganga River near Meerut region, India. Total length and weight of fish specimen ranged between 2.6-7.3 cm and between 10-38g. The length, breadth and weight of otoliths of each specimen were measured which were 71-84mm, 44-56mm and 0.001-0.004g respectively. The relationship was analyzed by linear regression model show high correlation. We observed a strong relationship between otolith length and total fish length. There were no significant differences between left and right otolith of this species (t-test, p>0.05). Otolith morphometry of this species are thought to be useful for fish taxonomists, paleobiologists and researchers investigating the nutritional biology of a fish predator.
Background: Knee pain (KP) is a commonly diagnosed ailment that is more prevalent among Indians than in other ethnic communities, with 31.8%. Although they significantly decreased inflammation and discomfort, long-term follow-up studies revealed adverse side effects such as digestion problems, cardiac arrest, and nephrosis. As a result, we can focus on non-pharmacological choices available at home to reduce pain and enhance cardiovascular events. The present research aims to examine the knowledge about the different home care measures for knee pain in the middle age group.
Objectives: To examine the knowledge about the different home care measures for knee pain in middle age group.
Methods: 50 males and females within the age group of 50 to 59 years. A questionnaire consisting of the various home care measures was prepared the selected individuals were subjected to answer. The abstracted results were taken for statistical analysis.
Results: The findings of our investigation revealed a strong, negative, and reasonable association between knowledge and pain scores. It indicates that as their knowledge score rises, their pain score falls.
Conclusion: The results of our study was found that middle-aged adult people had moderate knowledge regarding the awareness on the home care measures like massage therapy, leaf application therapy, diet and rest. Hence, home care measures for knee joint pain relief effectively improve the level of functional immobility among middle-aged people with knee joint pain.
One biological experiment was conducted to optimize the protein and energy for the commercial broilers reared under open sided housing system. The experiment was conducted by feeding different levels of protein (20%, 21% and 22% in broiler pre-starter feed, 21%, 22% and 23% in broiler starter feed and 19%, 20% and 21% in broiler finisher feed) and metabolised energy (2900, 3000 and 3100k.cal/kg in broiler pre-starter feed, 2800, 2900 and 3000k.cal/kg in broiler starter feed and 3000, 3100 and 3200 k.cal./kg in broiler finisher feed) to the commercial broilers for five weeks period to assess the production performance and cost effectiveness. Based upon the results in the experiment the optimum protein and energy requirements were studied. The biological experiment was accomplished with one hundred sex-separated day old commercial broiler chicks (cobb 400) belongs to the single hatch. The chicks were leg banded, weighed and allotted randomly into nine treatment groups with ten replicates in open sided housing system. All chicks were reared upto five weeks of age in standard management cold weather condition. During this period of study of an experiment, data on body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly interval. From the above data, body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion ratio was calculated. The result of this experiment shows that the protein and energy content of the diet had significantly influenced in the body weight gain feed consumption and feed consumption ratio in cold weather condition in the commercial broiler, and also the feeding plans in this study had significantly influenced the feed consumption, feed consumption ratio and body weight gain. The cost of production and net profit were calculated as per the results in each and every treatment groups and the net profit per broiler was highest in treatment group (T3) fed with -21% of C.P and 3000 k.cal/kg of M.E. in the finisher diet. Based upon the result in an open sided housing system in cold weather condition by provision of 1% higher protein than the standard recommended level and with 100 k.cal/kg feed low energy than the recommended level give better production performance and profit margins.
The present study includes FNAC material from the breast lesions of 100 cases over a period from August 2019 to July 2021 at Department of Pathology, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences, Puducherry - 605 502. In the present study, the total number of FNAC of breast lesions were 100. Of the 100 cases, 71(71 %) cases were benign, 26(26%) cases were malignant, one case was of atypical epithelial hyperplasia and 2 cases were reported as inadequate smears. Biopsy was received for 67 cases for which correlative study was done. Cytological diagnosis posed difficulty in the diagnosis of one case of fibrocystic disease. There was no false positive report; however one false negative report (ductal carcinoma reported as fibrocystic disease on FNAC) with false negative rate of 1.49%.
The use of γ-irradiated live attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites as a potential therapeutic agent against visceral leishmaniasis enhance the long-lasting protective immunity to host. Promastigotes of L.donovani exposed to gamma radiation (Co60 Source, Gammacell 220) at 20krad resulted in significant parasitisation of mononuclear phagocytic system in vivo and in vitro. Irradiation at this dose revealed altered parasitisation and optimum infection after acquiring the shape of amastigote-like organism. Few of them engulfed by macrophages and rest of the parasite remained side by side in the field as if they could not recognize the macrophages. Morphologic changes of L. donovani such as shrinkage of cytoplasm, loss of flagellum and progressive loss of motility, all were induced by 20 krad Gamma radiation (1.33MeV).
Background: Benign breast diseases include infections, granulomatous inflammatory disorders, lipomas, fibrocystic disease, and fibroadenomas.
Materials and Methods: We aimed to determine the proportion of benign breast diseases in a rural hospital during the COVID pandemic. A retrospective analysis of all breast disorders treated in the Department of Surgery between 01 April 2020 to 31 March 2021 was performed.
Results: There were 27 patients in our study, with the majority (25) being women and two men. The mean age and duration of symptoms of the study population were 40.45±23.49 (range, 16-71 years) and 5.2±3.8 months respectively.
Conclusion: Even though the number of cases may be lower, the spectrum of benign breast diseases that included fibroadenoma, gynecomastia, fibrocystic disease, phyllodes, and granulomatous mastitis is similar to that of more extensive studies from other institutions.
The purpose of this research was to study the major feeds of cattle and their nutritional quality in selected districts of Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. The Zone was divided into three agro-ecological zones: highland, midland, and lowland. A cross-sectional survey and field observation was used to collect important data. For laboratory analysis, feed samples were collected using quadrants. The samples were investigated for dry matter, ash, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and a general linear model was used to evaluate the nutritional quality of the feeds. The result showed that natural pasture, crop residues, and aftermath were the major cattle feeds in the study areas. Crude protein and IVDMD were significantly higher (P<0.05) for natural pasture than other feeds. The mean crude protein content of sampled feeds was 4.05%, which was far less than the critical level (7%) required for the function of rumen microbes. This indicates that nutritional quality of the feeds cannot satisfy even the maintenance needs of the animal. Therefore, treatment of available feeds, adoption of improved forages, and supplementation of concentrates is mandatory, especially during dry seasons.
Introduction: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a common emergency faced by physician during career. ACS is leading cause of mortality and morbidity in all over the world. Hence there is growing interest across the globe to find out various factors which could predict the prognosis of patient suffering from ACS. Objective: To study possible association between hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c) and admission glucose level identified during initial hospitalization in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Method: This hospital based prospective observational study was carried out for the period of 15 months from January 2017 to March 2018. A total of 100 patients who presented with ACS to the Emergency medicine Department under the Department of Medicine, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College and Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra were studied. The Results: Most of the patients were males (54%) and male to female ratio was 1.17:1. Most of the patients were (37%) aged between 61 to 70 years and 32% of the patients were aged between 51 to 60 years. The mean age was 62.36±9.89 years. Conclusion: Based on the above results it may be concluded that, admission glycated haemoglobin levels are associated with in hospital adverse events as well as outcome while outcome and adverse events were independent of blood sugar levels that is, random, fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels hence, blood sugar levels have limited prognostic value in patient with Acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Heavy metals are hazardous to soil invertebrates at high concentrations. Earthworm biochemical responses can serve as early signs of soil contamination. The effects of heavy metals such as CuSO4 and ZnSO4 on biochemical parameters such as protein, lipid and glycogen in the earthworm, Eudrilus eugeniae were investigated in present study. After 30 days of exposure, the results revealed that the sub lethal concentrations of both heavy metals significantly reduced the biochemical content of experimental worms compared to the control. Decreased values of protein, triglyceride and glycogen were dose dependent and found to be -24.4% and -10.9%, -26.87 % & -11.44% and -26.09% & -23.91% in worm exposed to 3/4th sub lethal concentration of CuSO4 and ZnSO4 respectively.
In the present study effect of BmNPV infection and subsequent oral treatment of ethanolic plant extracts on SDS-PAGE protein profile of midgut, silkgland, fatbody and haemolymph on 3rd and 5th day of fifth instar larvae of silkworm PM B. mori L. were studied. The electrophoretic analysis of proteins in midgut, silkgland, fatbody and haemolymph revealed the separation of maximum protein bands among which some of them represents the storage proteins. The BmNPV inoculation causes decrease in number of protein bands and staining intensity was also low as compared to the control. The treatment of plant extracts shows the decreased protein bands and staining intensity low but in some group shows the similar protein bands when compared with the control group sample.
The medicinal plants serve as a drug reservoir against a number of diseases. Different methods employed for enhancing their medicinal values and the nanomaterial synthesis is one among them. Those green chemical methods especially used as the promising anti-cancer agents and drug carriers. As a result, the goal of this study was to see how zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) worked against A549 cells (Human lung cancer cell). In Asia, the seed of the lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) is commonly utilised as a traditional medicine. In this study, N. nucifera dry seed extract was used to make zinc oxide nanoparticles, non-toxic drug carriers. The synthesized well-dispersed and spherical nanoparticles were analysed using scanning electron microscopy, Ultra Violet spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared, and Scanning Electron Microscope for their characterization. The use of nanoparticles in cancer treatment has gotten a lot of press recently. The Methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) test was used to assess anticancer activity in A549 (Lung Cancer cell). They were treated with ZnO nanoparticles ((ZnO-NPs) they showed a 50% decrease at a low concentration of 31.2 g/ml. These results showed that the anticancer activity of those extract is eventually enhanced by the presence of Zinc oxide Nano particles.
Bacterial infections are a major cause of chronic infections and mortality. Antibiotics have been the preferred treatment method for bacterial infections because of their cost-effectiveness and powerful outcomes. Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to target bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. NPS is therefore regarded as next-generation antibiotics. Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were investigated with potential antimicrobial applications against diabetic foot ulcer-causing microbes. All the tested samples including Copper acetate, Seaweed extract and CuONPs (B/C) showed different degrees of activities against diabetic foot ulcer-causing pathogens. Biologically synthesized CuONPs showed excellent antimicrobial activity against foot ulcer-causing microbes strains like Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris.
A survey was conducted on socio-economic conditions of riverside fishermen in Lendi river. The field survey was undertaken at the two fishing centres of Lendi River i.e. Mukramabad and Degloor. During the survey an attempt was made to obtain roughly same size of population. It was based on random sampling technique. As the population was large, the study was made by using random sampling technique. Selected centres were important landing and marketing centres. 50 families were selected from each centre. Thus, in total 100 families were surveyed from two centres. Socio-economic conditions of riverside fishermen were presented in terms of age distribution; religion, educational status, family status, housing status, occupation, annual income etc. are discussed accordingly.
The present study deals with variation in body composition of a teleostean fish ,Glossogobius gutum (Ham.) in relation to body length , weight and season .The body composition of fish in terms of moisture, Proteins, lipids , carbohydrates and ash content were observed 80.16 %, 15.55%, 1.15%, 0.89% and 2.26% respectively. The moisture content showed inverse relationship with body size and body weight which were varied from 75.40 to 84.66% in large ( standard length 16.0 cm & weight 46.0 ± 0.280 g) and small size fishes ( Standard length 6.0 cm & weight 4.0 ± 830 g) respectively . The other body components of the fish also showed variation such as Proteins 12.20 to 18.80% , lipids 0.60 to 1.90% , carbohydrates 0.70 to1.10% and ash content 1.83 to 2.80% from small size ( Standard length 6.0 cm & weight 4.0 ± 830 g) to large size fishes ( standard length 16.0 cm & weight 46.0 ± 0.280 g) respectively .The calorific values showed slight variation with respect to season which was maximum in winter (4 Kcal/g ) and minimum during monsoon (3.6 Kcal/g). The sulphur containing amino acids cysteine and methionine were found in bound form in liver and whereas methionine and basic amino acid histidine were present in bound form in muscles .
Background: Lymphatic filariasis is connected with psychological and social stigma, which can have a negative impact on productivity and quality of life. The purpose of this study was to see how patients with lymphatic filariasis felt about social stigma.
Methodology: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 26 lymphatic filariasis patients. A structured questionnaire was used for the interview, and the results were analyzed.
Results: Out of 26 patients, 11 (42.30%) were males, and 15 (57.70%) were females. All of the patients had lymphedema of the lower limb. There was no significant difference in the overall quality of life score between males and females. The overall quality of life score decreased with the severity of the disease. The least domain-specific score was observed in the mobility domain, and 2/3rd of patients had psychological problems and problems in social participation.
Conclusion: The social stigma associated with lymphatic filariasis was perceived by 70 percent of the study participants. As a result, in addition to preventative and treatment strategies for filariasis, emphasis must be placed on decreasing societal stigma associated with the condition.
The skin is the largest organ of the human body. It acts as a physical barrier. The skin serves many functions particularly: protection, thermo-regulation, percutaneaous absorption, secretory and sensory. As the primary interface between the body and external environment, the skin provides the first line of defense against broad injury by microbial and chemical agents. Nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly used to target bacteria as an alternative to antibiotics. nanoparticles is therefore regarded as next-generation antibiotics. The present study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial activity of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized from Dictyota dichotoma (Aqueous extract) using biological a chemical methods against the skin causing microbes. All the tested samples (Copper acetate, Seaweed extract and copper oxide nanoparticles (B/C) showed different degrees of activities against the skin causing bacterial and fungal pathogens. copper oxide nanoparticles showed potent antimicrobial activity against skin infection-causing microbes strains like Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Candida albicans (Fungus) and Trichophyton rubrum (Fungus).
The present investigation deals with study of seasonal biochemical variation in muscles of indigenous fresh water fish Channa marulius commonly known as maral in local language. Seasonal variations in muscle moisture, protein, glycogen and lipid is studied during December 2020 to November 2021.Moisture content in the Muscles of C. marulius is minimum in the month June (77.80%) and maximum moisture content in the month January (79.51%) with average mean value 78.52%. Protein content in the Muscles of C. marulius on dry weight basis is minimum in the month October (70.5053±0.163299%) and maximum Protein content in the month of May (79.63863 ± 0.20548%) with average mean value 75.08585 ± 0.259712%.Glycogen content in the Muscles of C. marulius on dry weight basis is minimum in the August (0.558998 ± 0.020548%) and maximum Glycogen content in the month January (1.948998 ± 0.020548%) with average mean value 0.95122 ± 0.021229%. Lipid content in the Muscles of C. marulius on dry weight basis is minimum in the February (1.725665 ± 0.044969%) and maximum Lipid content in the month of November (9.165665 ± 0.020548%) with average mean value 5.722054 ± 0.023625%. The present study may give insights in to develop the policies for conservation of C. marulius. Also, the outcomes may be useful in identification of ideal season for capture of this fish.
Zinc inadequacy is a major nutrition concern in public health globally. The lack of precise and sensitive biomarkers of zinc impedes large-scale public health intervention strategies. The existing marker, plasma zinc concentration, is stringently regulated by the tissues involved in zinc homeostasis. The tissue zinc homeostasis is regulated by several zinc transporters (ZnTs) and importers (ZIPs). Intestine plays an important role in zinc homeostasis but the expression dynamics with respect to zinc status is not well understood. Therefore, using a representative cell line of enterocyte cells (Caco-2) zinc deficiency was induced by an intracellular zinc chelator (TPEN) and zinc sulphate was used to make the cells sufficient, respectively. The expression of various transcripts levels of ubiquitously expressed zinc transporters was measured by Real Time-PCR. Among the zinc exporters (ZnT1, 5, and 9), it was observed that ZnT9 was down-regulated and subsequently up-regulated when the cells were exposed to zinc deficiency and zinc sufficiency, respectively. The present study reveals that although most of the ubiquitously expressed transporters show a different level of expression, ZnT9, ZIP7, and MT2 play major roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis in enterocyte cells.
The urgent need to conserve agricultural resources and drastically reduce the environmental impact of animal food on the world has rekindled interest in entomophagy, or the practice of eating insects and invertebrates. Insects may play a role as sustainable and functional foods due to their composite nutritional content, which is a direct result of plant-based feeding, as well as its undeniably ecological features. The antioxidant properties of edible insects (raw sample) obtained during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and absorption process were studied in this paper. Radical Scavenging Activity, Total Polyphenols Index, and Fe2+ Chelating Activity were used to assess the antioxidant potential of edible insect hydrolysates. The highest Radical Scavenging Activity noted for the edible insects are Bamboo worms (27.79 µg/ml), Crickets (26.73 µg/ml), House fly (30.03 µg/ml), locusts (36.78 µg/ml), Meals worm (32.61 µg/ml), Silkworm (35.08 µg/ml) and weaver ants (44.09 µg/ml). Total Polyphenol Index (TPI) of edible insects are Bamboo worms (385.12), Crickets (395.18), House fly (125.48), locusts (115.17), Meals worm (119.23), Silkworm (258.69) and weaver ants (249.23) mg GAE/100 g of defatted sample of 100 mL. The Fe2+ chelating activity for the edible insects are Bamboo worms (28.27 µg/ml), Crickets (27.15 µg/ml), House fly (30.66 µg/ml), locusts (37.28 µg/ml), Meals worm (33.19 µg/ml), Silkworm (35.75 µg/ml) and weaver ants (44.569 µg/ml).
Organic pesticides, which pollute natural water through agricultural waste, draining off water and other sources, have a negative impact on fish and other aquatic organisms. The primary goal of this research was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of three types of pesticides: organochlorine (endosulfan), organophosphate (chlorpyrifos), and synthetic pyrethroid (permethrin), all of which are routinely employed in agricultural practices. These three insecticides were given to adult male and female zebrafish at random. Each insecticide was subjected to its own set of toxicological tests. For a period of 96 hours, the death rate of zebrafishes was tracked in a laboratory setting. This preclinical data gives information about the safety of drugs for human usage. The Probit Analysis Statistical approach was used to evaluate the results of the toxicological tests. The toxicity tests gave the 96-h LC50 values as 0.10, 0.16 and 0.13µg/l for endosulfan, chlorpyrifos and permethrin respectively. The LC50 values revealed that all the three pesticides were highly toxic and the zebrafish showed highest sensitivity towards endosulfan followed by permethrin and chlorpyrifos. The LC50 values demonstrated that all three pesticides were extremely harmful to zebrafish, with endosulfan being the most sensitive, followed by permethrin and chlorpyrifos.
Prior to death, the fish showed signs of respiratory distress (such as gasping for air), loss of balance, and erratic swimming. The toxicity of these pesticides was also discovered to be time and concentration dependent. It is concluded that these insecticides are exceedingly dangerous and should be discontinued with considerable cautions. Pesticidal contamination in aquatic environments can be assessed using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a bioindicator.
The organ forms an immune network. Through its pigments, it provides special defense against UV radiation. It is associated with the thermoregulation, retention and excretion of fluid. It has sensory functions and has an aesthetic role. Skin acts as a mirror of human being through which manifestations of systemic diseases can be envisioned. Melanin pigmentation occur in two ways as constitutive changes (genetically determined) and facultative changes (augmented by sun exposure). Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation regulates melanin production, as well as endocrine and autocrine factors. Ethnic differences in complexion are caused by the number, shape and distribution of melanosomes. As a result, the purpose of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of non-neoplastic hyperpigmented skin lesions. Cysts and Group VI-tumors of the dermis and sub cutis belonged to this group. A thorough clinical history and examination are required for skin disorders, just as they are for other organ systems. In these circumstances, the histological findings should be contrasted clinically, resulting in a reasonable diagnosis and treatment. The documentation of the breadth of skin lesions' dissemination has been critical to our understanding of etiopathogenesis.
Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant endocrine tumor. Nowadays tissue biopsy and pathological assessment are the best diagnostic modalities for thyroid lesions. Differential diagnosis between adenomas and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is an important issue in pathology. Papillary carcinoma typically stains for Thyroglobulin, TTF-1, Pan-Cytokeratin and PAX-8. An assortment of markers, such as Cytokeratin-19, HWCK, HBME-1, GAL-3, CD57, CITED-1, CD15, Fibronectin-1, CD44 and PDGF have been proposed to be of significance in the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma. Considering the above, the purpose of the study is to show CD56, a neural cell adhesion molecule can be used as immunomarkers in the diagnosis of PTC. Its expression may affect the migratory capability of tumor cells. Hence it is not surprising that loss of CD56 correlates with metastatic potentials and poor prognostic outcome in some malignancies. The thyroidectomy specimens of the 30 patients has been used and statistically analyzed in the present clinical case study. The results revealed the potential usage of CD56 expression in serving as immunomarkers in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
Because of their effectiveness in scattering visible light and imparting whiteness, brightness, and high opacity, titanium dioxide nanoparticles are extensively used in plastic compositions. In addition, titanium dioxide's ability to absorb UV light radiation can considerably improve the weather ability and durability of polymer items. When chalking stability and color preservation are desired, titanium dioxide nanoparticles have been used in applications such as PVC window profiles and agricultural films. Commercially available titanium dioxide is rarely pure. Multilayer inorganic structures and, in some cases, organic treatments are applied to the surfaces of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles to improve compatibility and dispensability. Titanium dioxide is quite vital these days, especially for diabetics. As a result, we prepared for antibacterial action with titanium dioxide and the bacterium Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Titanium dioxide was pulverized and tested after being centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes and incubated for 24 hours.
Neem (Azadirachta indica) is a multipurpose tree with numerous health benefits. The antibacterial effects of the tree's numerous portions have been proved against a wide spectrum of microorganisms. The identification of bioactive compounds in this medicinal plant could lead to the development of new antibacterial treatments that are less expensive and more effective. Researchers employed Mentha aravensis to examine the effectiveness of alcoholic extracts of Mentha (Mint) on decaying teeth (Mint). Mint leaves have the same impact as chewing gums and, more importantly, they help to freshen your breath naturally. The extract, as well as the controls, were then tested microbiologically to see which concentration produced the largest inhibitory zone against Gram negative bacteria. In millimetres, the inhibitory zone was measured. A 10 mm zone of inhibition was produced using a 50 percent concentration of neem and mint extract. This was the largest zone of inhibition identified among the neem and mint concentrations studied. Neem and mint extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria.
Present study was conducted at Bt-cotton fields of selected study area of Kalaburagi. The results shows that, a total 21 arthropods were recorded, among them 13 insects were categorized as pests and 8 were natural enemies apart from that 3 species of predatory spiders were recorded. In Bt cotton agro-ecosystem leafhoppers, whiteflies, aphids, thrips, mites, and red cotton bugs were abundant during 35th, 36th, 40th, 38th, 39th and 46th SMW. On the other hand, natural enemies viz; spiders, lady bird beetles, lace wings, hover flies and ants were found predominantly during period of 34th to 36th SMW. A correlation studies shows that rainfall had a negative correlation with semilooper, whitefly, leafhopper, and hover fly and green lacewing population. Significantly positive correlation was observed between maximum temperature and mealy bug, green stink bug, pink bollworm and green lacewing, hover fly, white flies, and chafer beetle and spider population. Diversity of arthropod fauna was moderate to rich in Bt cotton agro-ecosystem of the selected study area (H'=2.09) with higher abundance of aphids followed by whiteflies, leaf hoppers, mites, thrips and red cotton bugs.
Alysicarpus vaginalis var. nummularifolius (DC.) Miq. a folklore medicine for jaundice treatment was investigated for its hepatoprotective activity. The methanolic extract of Alysicarpus vaginalis (AVM) showed a significant dose dependent (200 mg/kg bw, 400 mg/kg bw) protective effect against acetaminophen- induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The degree of protection was measured by using biochemically by testing the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) alanine aminotransferase (ALT) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). The plant extract prevented the toxic effects of acetaminophen (APAP) based upon the above serum parameters. Methanol extract significantly increased the activity of antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione. Histopathological evaluation of the liver confirmed the hepatoprotective role of methanol extracts of A. vaginalis as evident in biochemical evaluations.
The consequences of this specific research work proposed that rehashed warming bit by bit lessened the wellbeing defensive impacts. The present research might be sent in numerous viewpoints to upgrade the nature of oil as well as give open mindfulness not to open eatable oils to high temperatures for long stretches ordinarily. The aim of this research was to study the changes in the physicochemical properties like Moisture content, Specific gravity, the Saponification value (SV), in addition Iodine value (IV) and Acid value, Fatty Acid Profiles and Acrylamide testing of three different edible Oils (Mustard, Soya and Sunflower) on repeated frying with carbohydrate (potatoes) as it ultimately changes the its nutritional and sensory, physicochemical properties.
The objective of this research was to analyse the amounts of heavy metals in vegetables such as Pumpkin, Green Peas, Cucumber, Fenugreek leaves, Garlic leaves and Onion leaves that were watered with wastewater from the home. The sampling of vegetables was taken at random from farmlands in the Saharanpur district that were irrigated with domestic effluent. Estimated Health Risk Index and Estimated Daily Intake Metal (EDIM) were determined after the health risk evaluation (EHRI). Adults and children who consume vegetables grown in wastewater-irrigated soils collect considerable amounts of these metals, according to the current study. The values of these metals, however, were lower than the FAO/suggested WHO's maximum tolerable levels (1999).
Introduction: Demonstrating the movement of a human body in relation to axis and planes that can be used to train health practitioners or a medical professional has always a difficult task. Currently, people use cardboard and pencils for demonstrating the movements of the human body such as axes, planes, and the like.
Object of the Research: An object of the present research is to provide a manikin device for demonstrating movement of a human body. Another object of the present research is to provide a manikin device for demonstrating movement of a human body, which can be used as medical equipment for educational purposes or to train health practitioners.
Methods: For the present research, a device has been devised. The experimentation and the configuration have been conducted at KIMS Karad.
Results: According to the present research, there is provision with a manikin device for demonstrating movement of a human body. The manikin device is having a framework which comprises articulated blocks of the human body. In the present embodiment, the blocks are a hollow housing provided to configure the parts of the human body. Specifically, the blocks are articulated to configure the human's body part such as legs, hands, thorax region, pelvis region, and head.
Conclusion: The present research is to provide a manikin device for demonstrating movement of a human body. The manikin device is having a framework which comprises articulated blocks of the human body.
Obesity is the result of a modernized lifestyle and its prevalence is magnified by the excessive eating, sleep deprivation, and genetic basis. People with obesity usually face many types of problems from social and psychological issues and are victimized for a lower level of self-esteem, self-confidence, and neuropsychological dysfunction. Despite that consequence, there is not much social awareness regarding the care of people with obesity in society. Hence, the present study aimed to analyze the physio- psychological problems faced by the obese people for creating awareness among the adolescents. The study showed a strong relationship between obesity and their demographic valuables. These results are useful in fountaining the lifestyle among the youths.
Mosquitoes are medically significant as vectors of many epidemics such as malaria, dengue fever and filariasis. The gut of mosquito is inhabited by various bacterial flora and they assist in many physiological functions including its pathogen transmitting ability. The disease transmitting efficiency of the mosquito can be reduced by making transgenic variation in gut bacteria. Proper identification of gut bacterial flora is needed to select an ideal bacterial species for transgenic purpose. In the present study the haemolytic gut bacteria Staphylococcus warneri is isolated from the adult female Armigeres subalbatus and identified by using 16S rRNA sequencing.
The breath is an essential involuntary activity for sustaining the life and any uncompromised event could disturb it severely. Those ill effects could result in chronic diseases such as asthma, upper respiratory tract infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD), d bronchiectasis and breathing complications. The inhalation therapy is recommended for those patients and the Nebulizers are much useful in clearing the obstacles in the air ways. The current study focused on the evaluation of efficiency of the twin technique that enhances the respiratory efficiency in the chronic obstructive patients.
Many contaminated foods are one of the sources of food-borne diseases which have an incredible impact on health and survival. Fungal contamination of food may be one of the most persistent and frequently recognized causes of these diseases. In the present study, the effect of cooking and refrigeration methods were used for the food items like vegetables, eggs, and meat to detect the growth of food-borne fungal pathogens. A set of each of the food items was kept raw at room temperature as the control sample. A total of nine fungal species viz Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus nidulance, Pencillium verrucossum, Mucor spp, Rhizopus nigricans, Syncephalastrum recemosum, and Mycelia sterile were isolated and identified according to their morphological characters. Species wise relative abundance was highest for Aspergillus flavus followed by Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates. All the isolates present in this study are potential fungal pathogens that are capable of causing serious human hazards.
Present study work was done from 1st January to 30th December 2021 from Shirur Tehsil Pune District, MS. The ichthyofaunal diversity is a good indicator of health of aquatic ecosystem. A good piscine diversity represents the balanced ecosystem. The study revealed the occurrence of 14 species of fishes in the river belonging to 5 orders such as Cypriniforme, Siluriformes, Beloniformes, Synbranchiformes and Perciformes.
The introduction of exotic fish species is steadily increasing in many water bodies in the Philippines, either intentionally or unintentionally. The rise in aquaculture and ornamental fish industries are seen to be the major culprits in the increase of non-native species in major lakes in the country. This paper reports the occurrence of an exotic cichlid species in Lake Buluan, Philippines. Thirty (30) samples were obtained from a local fisherman in the area. Collected samples have an average standard length of 93.27 ± 10.43 mm and an average weight of 43.40 ± 14.65 grams. The morphological characteristics of the collected specimens are very similar to the highly invasive Cichlasoma trimaculatum . The abundance of this species in the local wet market is indicative of its successful establishment. Negative impacts on the occurrence of this species on the population of native species in the area have also been reported, however, no verifiable scientific evidence is currently available. Hence, further studies on its potential impact on the native species in Lake Buluan should be done especially since this species is notoriously invasive.
The brain, spinal cord and meninges make the central nervous system and mde up of specialized neuron cells. They are the cause for transmission and storage of information. The lesions in intracranial space cause significant proportion of mortality worldwide. Those lesions are said to be anatomical lesions and severely affect the inner body systems and most of the patients were unaware until the stages reach its crust, fatal. The present study aimed to use advanced radiological methods for finding out such kind of anatomical lesions.
Vectors are the biological agents that transmit the diseases causative agents from individual to individual. About six vector- borne diseases are reported in India’s tropical and subtropical regions also. The study results indicate that the maximum number of Dengue cases were reported during year 2019 (13331) fallowed by 2017 (5369), 2021 (4610), 2018 (4592) and the minimum cases were recorded in 2015 (1831) respectively. While more deaths were reported in 2019 (07) than in 2016 (04), 2 deaths were reported in 2015 and 2018 respectively. While, maximum number of suspicious cases of chikungunya was reported in 2019 (5352) and conformed cases are 1358, the minimum cases are reported in 2017 (58) and 2021 (57) respectively The National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme is introduced for prevention & control of these vector borne diseases as an integral part of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) of India.
Background: Pyrexia of unknown origin has become a major problem in developing countries including India. In tropical region during monsoon and post-monsoon period there are high chances of dual infection and cross reactivity. The objective of the present study was to find incidence of co-infection among patients with Pyrexia of unknown origin.
Methods: This was a hospital based prospective study conducted over a period of One year (January to December) in 2018 in the department of microbiology. A total of 80 PUO cases were collected from different wards of King George’s Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India. Serological methods were applied for diagnosis of infection.
Results: In this study a total of 80 pyrexia cases were studied, of those 80 pyrexia cases, 27(33.75%) of pyrexia cases were detected due to infection of which co infection contributed to 7/80(8.75%) and single infection were detected in 20(25%). The most common co-infection was Leptospirosis and Scrub typhus reported in 3 patients while Leptospirosis and Malaria was observed in one patient.
Conclusion: This study showed presence of dual infection as a cause of PUO. Serology-based investigations played a vital role in establishing diagnosis.
Solid state fermentation (SSF) of Wolffia globosa leaves was carried out by an autochthonous phytase producing bacteria Bacillus subtilis (HM352551) isolated from the hindgut of Labeo bata, a freshwater teleost. Optimum phytase production was monitored after incubation for 8 days at 350C temperature with 60% moistening media at pH 7. Maximum phytase activity was exhibited with 3% (v/w) inoculum size (12.38 ± 0.05 U/g) and 60% initial moisture content (13.46±0.08 U/g). Laboratory analysis of proximate composition revealed that there was signiﬁcant increase (t-value signiﬁcant at P < 0.05) in the contents of crude protein, lipid, minerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, P), different amino acids level; along with sharp decline in the contents of the other antinutritional factors, for example, crude ﬁber, phytic acid, and trypsin inhibitor and heavy metals. Further investigation must be carried out for future application of the gut inhabiting bacteria in bio-processing of low cost aquatic weeds.
Marshy places generated by rain water were surveyed in the vicinity of Baddi town in Solan district of Himachal Pradesh for the collection of mosquito larvae and pupae from March to November, 2018. Twenty-four mosquito species belonging to six genera i.e. Anopheles, Culex, Lutzia, Fredwardsius, Mansonia and Rhinoskusea were collected. Culex vishnui was found in all the surveyed sites, whereas Culex quinquefasciatus was the most abundant species (16.3%). Abundance was highest in Tipra (32.1%) and lowest in Karuni (13.7%). Tipra and Sainsiwal had highest species similarity (Jaccard index-0.45 and Sorensen index-0.62), while the lowest species similariy was observed among Nawan Nagar & Katha as well as Karuni & Sainsiwal (Jaccard index-0.142 and Sorensen index-0.25). Species diversity at different sites was quantified by calculating Shannon-Wiener, Simpson & Margalef Richness Indices. High correlation among species richness and abundance was detected (r=0.97, d.f.=4, p< .05).
Nature has endowed us by a number of things. It is also equally true carelessness by human being caused a great loss to the earth. Pollution is one of such carelessness. But it is the beauty of nature that has given the treatment of every such carelessness. The technique “bioremediation" is nothing just a remedy by the nature that recycles wastes and makes them harmless and to some extent beneficial. It is found to be one of the most effective methods for restoring polluted river water and preserving the affected ecosystem. With the help of all-inclusive microorganisms, bioremediation involves the degradation, elimination, restriction and reclamation of numerous chemical and physical hazardous elements from the environment. It also involves disintegration as well as the transmutation of contaminants like as heavy metals which is the core premise of bioremediation. Different microorganisms such as algae are found to be game changer in the bioremediation process. Bioaugmentation, Bio stimulation, Biofilters, Bioreactors, Biopharming, Bioventing, Composting, Land farming are various Bioremediation techniques. All bioremediation processes have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. Above all, using bioremediation to resurrect a dirty river will result in significantly less contaminated, safe, and ship-shape waterways.
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is found in 80 tropical and subtropical nations. Infected people are expected to number 51.4 million worldwide. At present, the LF elimination program has focused chiefly on interrupting transmission through an annual community-wide treatment program with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole, or albendazole and ivermectin, lasting four to six years. Although significant progress has been made whenever the method has been effectively adopted, initial benefits have been accompanied by the understanding that this strategy alone will not provide a long-term solution in all circumstances. Laboratory research and quantitative field measurements of LF's impact, particularly local prevalence studies of parasite-infected individuals and vectors, dominate the LF literature. As the worldwide eradication program grows, it is becoming clear that a lack of socio-cultural awareness is a major issue in ensuring that it is appropriate and responsive to local needs and understanding. The current condition of socio-cultural knowledge of LF is examined in this research. It concludes that there is currently a lack of understanding of the socio-cultural factors associated with the presence and treatment of the disease and that appropriate social science methods should be used to address this gap and ensure community partnership in the delivery and sustainability of LF elimination programs.
Vembanad Lake is facing gross pollution problem mainly due to the release of untreated effluents from industries and domestic sectors. The increasing concentrations of pesticides, heavy metals and trace metals in Vembanad Lake reached hazardous levels, which may cause major health risk to humans through the trophic transfer. In this review paper, a sincere effort is made to bring forward the various studies on heavy and trace metals, conducted in the Vembanad Lake especially in Cochin backwater system, by various researchers during the past few decades. A number of metals are present in higher concentrations in various areas of the estuarine region.Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb) and Mercury (Hg) are the most reporting metals from the backwater system. Selenium (Se) and Nickel (Ni) are the least found trace metals.
Fishes are the large group of animals that undergo extensive phenotypic changes during development. India is responsible for nearly 7.7% of the world's fish biodiversity. DNA barcoding is useful for biodiversity conservation strategies by knowing the identity of species by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene. By using DNA barcoding tool, discoveries of new species are possible. In nature, phenotypic dissimilarity between species usually overlaps between sister’s taxa, leading to inaccurate identifications simply based on morphology. The DNA barcoding technique has opened up new ways in fish ecology and phylogenetic connections. Recently, for the correct taxonomical fish identification the phenotypic research and DNA barcoding were used in combination. The modern assessment projected to discover fish fauna and standing of DNA barcoding in riverine fishes from India.
Fishes are exposed to various kind of toxicants that are life- threatening. Organophosphates are one of the major and hazardous contaminants found in water bodies. It reaches water bodies through surface runoff and leaching. Exposure to pesticides can cause impairment in the internal organs of organism, which may lead to the alternation in the physiology and functioning of the organs. Organophosphates can induce damages to nervous system by inactivating neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase. It can also cause excessive release of reactive oxygen species and thereby cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress activates antioxidant enzyme system of an organism, to cope up with the massive generation of free radicals. This review gives a brief account on the effects of organophosphates and the detrimental damages it can cause on organisms.
Tras-resveratrol gained popularity since it was reported to be associated with its antiaging effect. Many sources are reported to have resveratrol. Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) is also one of them that produces trans-resveratrol, a compound with various biological properties like antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects as well. In many studies, trans-resveratrol was detected in the roots, leaves, and stems and purple seed coats of peanuts cultivated in a sterile environment. Generally, peanut produces not much amount of resveratrol but when the peanut plant faces biotic stress, it produces enough amount of trans-resveratrol. This resveratrol may be detected by reverse-phase HPLC. The various experiments conducted on the culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed a positive result as far as the antiaging effect is concerned. The promising results obtained during experiments promoted various pharmaceutical companies to synthesize and sell in the form of plant extract. Slowly, trans-resveratrol has gained good market value as an antiaging product. It has been a long journey since 2000 when the very first time trans-resveratrol came into existence as an antiaging compound and yeast was the biological model. Since then various model organisms were selected to finally reach human trials. But still, the exact pathway is not clear, therefore, it is imperative to study different model organisms. Although in recent past, many human trials have been reported and the result was also astonishing. In the current scenario, various human trials are going on but no antiaging project on humans has been reported. This review encourages more researches to see the antiaging effects of trans-resveratrol.
The dairy industry's success in India is much dependent on buffaloes and the level of production and reproduction traits of productive animals. Murrah buffalo is the most productive buffalo breed; an attempt was made to explore this productive breed for its genetic improvements and further research. To improve productivity and obtain efficient reproduction of milch animals, it is necessary to understand the factors that affect performance traits. Those traits depend on various genetic and non-genetic factors that introduce biasness in estimating the phenotypic value of the desired performance trait. Absence of accurate phenotypic value of the traits makes it difficult to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits that determine the optimum selection criterion for the animals as planned in the improvement programme. Also, evaluating the genetic parameters and the breeding value of animals requires an assumption of adjustment of phenotypic measurements for non-genetic factors that can affect performance traits (calving period, calving season, age at calving and parity of animal). This review summarises the effects of non-genetic factors on performance traits and means or averages of various performance traits obtained by various researchers in past ten years in buffaloes. The performance traits of Murrah buffaloes studied and published in past decade i.e., 2010 to 2020 revealed variability in total lactation milk yield (1365.08 ±2.98 kg to 2229.87 ±93.70 kg), in 305 Day lactation Milk Yield (1754.79 ±28.57 kg to 2147.6 ±87.06 kg), and in Peak Yield (8.87 ±0.05 kg/day to 10.55 ±0.25 kg/day). Lactation length varies from 286.08 ±2.23 days to 344.0 ±102.0 days, service period from 146.28 ±5.58 days to 225.0 ±5.5 days and dry period from 173.34 ±5.59 days to 230.2 ±4.9 days.
Conclusion: Larger age at first calving and more extended dry period are significant problems for farmer. Temperament, along with Body conformation traits, should also be given due importance in the selection criterion. Genes related to increasing tolerance for drastic temperature variation in environment, parasitic load, mastitis and disease resistance should be studied for early selection.
Root knot nematodes live up to their name as they cause galls (knots) in the roots of various plants. These sedentary microscopic nematodes belong to the Meloidogyne genus, which has approximately 98 species. Among these 98 types of parasites, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. arenaria are the most common in crop fields. M. incognita is also known as "southern root knot nematodes." Similar to its other species, it also causes giant cell formation in the roots of the host plant. It affects approximately 5 per cent of the total crop production in the world. The most widely used controlling approach against this microscopic enemy of plants is chemical nematicides. But due to its huge bad impact on the environment, an eco-friendly approach has been grown and introduced, which is the use of potent plant extracts to control M. incognita. This new approach is biodegradable and cost-effective. Plant extracts are also very potent for mitigating M. incognita. Various studies in this area reveal its huge potency against the southern root knot nematodes. The presence of alkaloids, phenols, diterpenes, and polyacetylene in the plant extracts may be the cause of such potency. This biological approach controls M. incognita in two ways: one is by inhibiting the hatching of nematodes from eggs, and the other is by killing the nematodes. Studying with the help of chemistry, the administration's approach to this control will be more fruitful. Further study should be done in this area so that such an eco-friendly and cost-effective controlling measure against Meloidogyne incognita can be marketed.
Bio-monitoring of freshwater ecosystems is essential for determining the health of an aquatic ecosystem. The functional diversity of freshwater macro-invertebrates has been extensively studied. The macro-invertebrate species have been widely used to assess the quality of aquatic systems due to their vast range of responses to contaminants. Seasonal macro-invertebrate population samples can reveal the effects of pollution sources that might have remained undetected by Physico-chemical sampling or continuous monitoring of a limited set of parameters. The purpose of this review research paper is to analyze various features of bio-monitoring, the efficacy of macro-invertebrates in predicting the aquatic system status and the need for research with a focus on recent advancements. This research communication also tends to highlight the entire work performed on macro-invertebrates for the assessment of the water quality of rivers in Uttrakhand. This research article includes a summary of the literature on freshwater macroinvertebrate studies, the related state of knowledge and the development of research on benthic macroinvertebrates. The sources of literature consulted are the books, research papers, review research papers, dissertations and online available research materials.
In the anthropogenic sources of pollution, agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, all types of pesticides have long been for high crops production. This makes difficult periods for all organisms and the food chain. Some data prove that our forming completely trapped by chemicals and high demands of these chemicals is not only directly harmful to health but also damaged non-living matter like soil, water and air.Those indirect harms for the organism, economic losses for farmers. Pesticides have been recognized as serious pollutants in the aquatic environment. Their affection directly and indirectly in fish by accumulation in body and transfer higher trophic as food. They cause serious impairment in metabolic, physiological and structural changes in different organs. The accumulation of pesticides in the tissues of fishes can result in chronic illness and cause potential damage to the population. The present study discusses among other issues, the toxic effects of pesticides on aquatic life with emphasis on fish and the public health implication.
The Yamuna River is a major river of India that originates from the Himalayan mountain system. It originates from Yamunotri in Uttarkashi district of Uttarakhand. Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, is an African freshwater cichlid and a very important food fish in the world. Nile tilapia competes with the native species in areas where it has been introduced. The Nile tilapia was intentionally introduced around the world as an aquaculture edible fish. It is a very hardy fish that can tolerate a wide range of environmental factors, making it well suited to aquaculture. It is the third most imported food fish worldwide. The non-native fish species play an important role in the landing and trade from the Yamuna River. The stock of these fish well established from the Yamuna River.
Bromocriptine, an antinociceptive D2 receptor agonist, is thought to reorganize an excessively heightened hypothalamic drive for higher fatty acids, plasma glucose, and tri-glycerides in insulin resistant individuals by acting on circadian neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. In May 2009, the bromocriptine mesylate is officially authorized for the cure of people with diabetes. Due to its novel mechanism of action, lower rates of cardiovascular events and good side effect profile it makes an appealing choice for diabetes cure.
By studying the literature on freshwater and marine Epistylis of all continents, a checklist with all information, is prepared. This checklist will help for further research in this area. Epistylis is mainly parasite of arthropods, molluscs, fishes. But there are some free- living species also. They infect skin, fin, gills and external appendages. The checklist contains 145 species of Epistylis. Among them, 18 species are found in Asia, 31 species from Europe, 25 species from Africa, 17 species from USA, 1 species from New Zealand, 1 species from Antarctica.
Biotechnology is based on the understanding of DNA and thus helps in the manipulation of genes through genetic engineering with molecular markers and tissue culture. Recently, Biotechnology not only provides new varieties of crops (agriculture biotechnology) but has also played an important role in insect pest management with Integrated Pest Management (IPM). IPM is an environment-friendly approach that focuses on keeping the pest population at below economic threshold levels by employing all available alternate pest control methods and techniques such as cultural, mechanical, and biological(habitat manipulation) with emphasis on the use of bio-pesticides and pesticides from the plant (By Ministry of Agriculture and farmers welfare, India). Biotechnological techniques integrated with entomology include -DNA barcoding play important role in molecular taxonomy through recombinant DNA technology, RNAi gene regulatory process, Insect-resistant crop varieties, sterile insect technique, and biopesticides formulation which dynamically control the insect pest population.
Fluoride toxicity is declared one of the severe threats by many countries globally. Fluoride pollution has received much attention in recent decades due to its toxicity-related disorders in humans and animals. It is responsible for the majority of groundwater-related diseases that enter water sources via natural and anthropogenic pathways. Fluoride accumulates in the body, causing disruption of cellular respiration, oxidative damage, and changes to the antioxidant enzyme system. As a result, the apoptotic machinery is also triggered. Several physical methods are available for the defluoridation of water, but these techniques are still inaccessible in many backward areas. Hence, remedial approaches such as plant extracts and bioactive components with antioxidant qualities that protect cells from fluoride-induced oxidative stress are urgently needed. This review aims to explore the available therapy options for fluoride-induced oxidative stress using plant extracts and bioactive components.