STUDIES ON THE DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTONS AND THEIR SEASONAL VARIATION IN KUNIGAL TANK, TUMKUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA

Main Article Content

H. M. LALITHA
S. RAMAKRISHNA

Abstract

Aquatic water resources play vital role in maintaining environmental sustainability. Surface water bodies like lakes and tanks are degraded by increased industrial activities and urban runoff which deteriorate the water quality and their environment. Phytoplanktons are the autotrophic components of the plankton community and form the important part of the aquatic food chain. Aquatic environmental productivity is directly associated with phytoplankton density. Physico-chemical factors are directly related to their production. The temperature is found to be the main driving force for phytoplankton dominance. The members of phytoplankton community are important for their role in food production and energy transfer in trophic dynamics and water ecosystems. In the pollution study, they are represented as biological indicators of water quality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the phytoplankton diversity for a period of two years from February 2014 to January 2016 in Kunigal tank and to assess the species composition and seasonal variations of this faunal group. The water samples were collected from five sampling sites between 7 am to 9 am on monthly basis. From each sampling site, 50 liters of water sample were collected, filtered through 60μm mesh size plankton net. The concentrated water sample was fixed and preserved in 4% formalin. one ml of concentrated sample was transferred into Sedge-wick Rafter cell and counted under Olympus binocular microscope. The results revealed the occurrence of 62 species of phytoplanktons belonging to five groups - Chlorophyceae, Bacillariophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Desmidaceae and Euglenophyceae. Chlorophyceae is represented by 16 species belonging to 15 genera, Bacillariophyceae is represented by 12 species belonging to 9 genera, Cyanophyceae is represented by 18 species belonging to 17 genera, Desmidaceae is represented by 12 species belonging to 8 genera and Euglenophyceae is represented by 4 species belonging to 2 genera. Among these, Chlorophyceae shows its dominance. The percentage composition of phytoplankton species was found as Chlorophyceae>Bacillariophyceae > Cyanophyceae>Desmidaceae > Euglenophyceae. Shannon-Weiner Index value of phytoplanktons ranged between 2.0 - 3.0 and Simpson Index values are found between 0 and 1, which indicated the good diversity and light pollution level. The results of this study explained the diversity and pollution status of Kunigal tank and helps in implementing strategies for water quality management and productivity of the tank.

Keywords:
Physico-chemical parameters, phytoplanktons, diversity, chlorophyceae, bacillariophyceae, diversity indices, simpson index

Article Details

How to Cite
LALITHA, H. M., & RAMAKRISHNA, S. (2021). STUDIES ON THE DIVERSITY OF PHYTOPLANKTONS AND THEIR SEASONAL VARIATION IN KUNIGAL TANK, TUMKUR DISTRICT, KARNATAKA. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 42(24), 555-570. Retrieved from http://mbimph.com/index.php/UPJOZ/article/view/2746
Section
Original Research Article

References

Dhanam S, Sathya A, Elayaraj B. Study of physico-chemical parameters and phytoplankton diversity of Ousteri lake in Puducherry. World Scientific News. 2016; 54:153-64.

Lalitha HM, Shree Jani HK, Ramakrishna S. Effect of physico-chemical parameters on phytoplankton diversity of Durgada Halli lake. International journal of Research and Analytical reviews. 2020; 7(4): 647-52.

Tiwari A, Chauhan SV. Seasonal phytoplanktonic diversity of Kitham lake, Agra. Magnesium. 2006;7(17.5):8-5.

Lalitha HM, Ramakrishna S. Diversity and seasonal variations of zooplankton community in Kunigal tank, Tumkur District, Karnataka. Uttar Pradesh Journal of Zoology. 2021;42(24):165-79.

Kumar S, Sharma BK, Sharma SK, Upadhyay B. Primary productivity and phytoplankton diversity in relation to fisheries potential of the Lake Udai Sagar, Udaipur. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies. 2015;2(5):09-12.

Raghavendra M, Nandini N, VijayKumar M, Bheemappa K. Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton Diversity in Anchepalya Lake, Bengaluru Urban, India. International Journal of Advanced Research. 2015;3(6):2400-5.

Fritsch FE. Structure and Reproduction of the Algae. Cambridge University Press. 1. 1959.

Desikachary TV. Cyanophyta. New Delhi: Indian Council of Agricultural Research;1959; 1-686.

Prescott. The Algae - A review. Thomas Nelson and Sons Ltd., Great Britain. 1969.

Needham and Needham. A guide to the study of freshwater biology, 4th (ed), Comstock publishing company, NewYork; 1941.

Adoni AD. Work book of Limnology, pratibha publication Sagar. MP India. 1985:1126.

Federation WE, APH Association. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association (APHA): Washington, DC, USA. 2005.

Atici T, Tokatli C. Algal diversity and water quality assessment with cluster analysis of four freshwater lakes (Mogan, Abant, Karagöl and Poyrazlar) of Turkey. Wulfenia. 2014;21(4):155-69.

Atici T, Ahiska S. Pollution and algae of Ankara Stream. Gazi University Journal of Science. 2005;18(1):51-9.

Shekhar TS, Kiran BR, Puttaiah ET, Shivaraj Y, Mahadevan KM. Phytoplankton as index of water quality with reference to industrial pollution. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2008 Mar 1;29(2):23.

Laskar HS, Gupta S. Phytoplankton diversity and dynamics of Chatla floodplain lake, Barak Valley, Assam, North East India-A seasonal study. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2009 Nov 1;30(6):1007-12.

Ravishankar HG, Murthy GP, Lokesh S, Hosmani SP. Diversity of Fresh water algae in two Lakes of Tumkur, Karnataka State, India. In13th Wuhan Conference 2009;1-17.

Bhosale LJ, Patil SM, Dhumal SN, Sathe SS. Phytoplankton biodiversity in water bodies of Tahasil Kavathe Mahankal (Sangli District) during post summer period. Indian Hydrobiology. 2010;12(2):190-4.

Shinde SE, Pathan TS, Sonawane DL. Seasonal variations and biodiversity of phytoplankton in Harsool-Savangi dam, Aurangabad, India. Journal of environmental biology. 2012 May 1;33(3):643.

Devaraj KV, Mahadeva HS, Pazal AA. Hydrobiology of the Hemavathy reservoir. Proc. of Asian Fish. Soc., Mangalore. 1988:323-7.

Begum NB, Narayana J. Phytoplankton diversity of four lentic water bodies in and around Davangere city, Karnataka. Journal of Aquatic Biology. 2006;21(2):13-8.

Kulshrestha SK, Joshi M. Periphyton community of lower lake of Bhopal in relation to sewage pollution. Aquatic Science in India. Indian Association for Limnology and Oceanology. 1991:65-75.

Round FE, Crawford RM, Mann DG. Diatoms: Biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge university press. 1990:747.

Philipose MT. Freshwater phytoplankton of inland fisheries. In Proceeding of the symposium on Algology 1960;279: 291.

Hujare MS. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton in the freshwater tank of Talsande, Maharashtra. Nature environment and pollution technology. 2008;7(2):253.

Qureshimatva Umerfaruq M, Maurya Rupesh R, Gamit Sandip B, Solanki Hitesh A. Seasonal Variation of Phytoplankton in Bibi Lake, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Preservation. 2015 Oct;4(10).

Atici T, Obali O. The diatoms of Asartepe Dam Lake (Ankara), with environmental and some physicochemical properties. Turkish Journal of Botany. 2010 Nov 30;34(6):541-548.

Paramasivam M, Sreenivasan A. Changes in algal flora due to pollution in Cauvery River. Indian Journal of Environmental Health,1981;23(3): 222-38.

Zafar AR. On the ecology of algae in certain fish ponds of Hyderabad, India. Hydrobiologia. 1967 Jul;30(1):96-112.

Albay M, Akçaalan R. Factors influencing the phytoplankton steady state assemblages in a drinking-water reservoir (Ömerli reservoir, Istanbul), In Phytoplankton and Equilibrium Concept: The Ecology of Steady-State Assemblages, Springer. 2003; 85-95.

Atici T. Use of cluster analyze and similarity of algae in Eastern Black Sea Region Glacier Lakes (Turkey), Key area: Artabel Lakes Natural Park. Gazi University Journal of Science. 2018;31(1):25-40.

Atici T, Ahiska S, Altindag A, Aydin D. Ecological effects of some heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cr) pollution of phytoplanktonic algae and zooplanktonic organisms in Sarýyar Dam Reservoir in Turkey. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2008;7(12). 1972-1977.

Atici T, Alas A. A study on the trophic status and phytoplanktonic algae of Mamasin Dam Lake (Aksaray-Turkey). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 2012 Sep 1;12(3): 595-601.

Seenayya G. Ecological studies in the plankton of certain freshwater ponds of Hyderabad, India. Phytoplankton-1. Hydrobiologia. 1971 Feb;37(1):55-88.

Kiran BR. Distribution and occurrence of desmids in Bhadra Reservoir Karnataka. International Journal of Research in Environmental Science. 2016;2(3):16-23.

Sharma S, Singh K, Prajapati R, Solnki CM, Sharma D, Sengupta T, Gandhi T, Chouhan M, Vyas A. Diversity and Seasonal Abundance of Phytoplankton of River Narmada Madhya Pradesh (India). World Rural Observations. 2011;3(2):14-28.

Kulshrestha SK, Joshi M. Periphyton community of lower lake of Bhopal in relation to sewage pollution. Aquatic Science in India. Indian Association for Limnology and Oceanology. 1991:65-75.

Brraich OS, Kaur R. Phytoplankton community structure and species diversity of Nangal Wetland, Punjab, India. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2015;4(3):76-83.

Shruthi MS, Rajashekhar M. Ecological observations on the phytoplankton of Nethravati-Gurupura estuary, south west coast of India. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India. 2013;55(2):41-7.