Published: 2021-12-20

Page: 519-531


Department of Zoology, St. Berchmans’ College, Changanassery, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Department of Zoology, St. Berchmans’ College, Changanassery, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Department of Zoology, Devamatha College, Kuravilangadu, Kottayam, Kerala, India.


Department of Zoology, St. Berchmans’ College, Changanassery, Kottayam, Kerala, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Fishes are exposed to various kind of toxicants that are life- threatening. Organophosphates are one of the major and hazardous contaminants found in water bodies. It reaches water bodies through surface runoff and leaching. Exposure to pesticides can cause impairment in the internal organs of organism, which may lead to the alternation in the physiology and functioning of the organs. Organophosphates can induce damages to nervous system by inactivating neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase. It can also cause excessive release of reactive oxygen species and thereby cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress activates antioxidant enzyme system of an organism, to cope up with the massive generation of free radicals. This review gives a brief account on the effects of organophosphates and the detrimental damages it can cause on organisms.

Keywords: Organophosphates, acetylcholinesterase, neurotoxicity, antioxidant system

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