A REVIEW ON EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDES ON NON- TARGET ORGANISMS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO FISH
UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY,
Fishes are exposed to various kind of toxicants that are life- threatening. Organophosphates are one of the major and hazardous contaminants found in water bodies. It reaches water bodies through surface runoff and leaching. Exposure to pesticides can cause impairment in the internal organs of organism, which may lead to the alternation in the physiology and functioning of the organs. Organophosphates can induce damages to nervous system by inactivating neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase. It can also cause excessive release of reactive oxygen species and thereby cause oxidative stress. Oxidative stress activates antioxidant enzyme system of an organism, to cope up with the massive generation of free radicals. This review gives a brief account on the effects of organophosphates and the detrimental damages it can cause on organisms.
- antioxidant system
How to Cite
Ling XP, Zhang YH, Lu YH, Huang HQ. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and acetylcholinesterase: biomarkers for the joint effects of cadmium, zinc and methyl parathion contamination in water. Environmental Technology. 2011;32(13):236-243.
Coppage DL, Braidech TE. River pollution by cholinesterase agents. Water Research. 1975; 10:19-24.
Sadiqul IM, Ferdous Z, Nannu TA, Mostakim GM, Rahaman K. Acute exposure to a quinalphos containing insecticide (Convoy) causes genetic damage and nuclear changes in peripheral erythrocytes of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus. Environmental Pollution. 2016;30:1-8.
Senapathi T, Mukerjee AK, Ghosh AR. Observations on the effect of glyphosate-based herbicide on ultra-structure (SEM) and enzymatic activity in different regions of alimentary canal and gill of Channa punctatus (Bloch). Journal of Crop and Weed. 2009; 5(1):233-242.
Matsumara F. Toxicology of insecticides, 2nd edtn, Plenum press, New York, NY; 1985.
Zinkl JG, Lockhard WL, Kenny SA, Ward FJ. The effects of cholinesterase inhibiting insecticides on fish. In Mineau P(ed) cholinesterase-inhibiting insecticides. Elsevier, New York, NY. 1991;233-254.
Beyers DW, Siloski PJ. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in federally endangered Colorado squawfish exposed to carbaryl and malathion. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 1994;13(6):935-939.
Bull CJ. Behaviour of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to sumithion (fenitrothion), an organophosphate insecticide. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 1974;31(12):1867-1872.
Symons PEK. Behaviour of young Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) exposed to or force-fed fenitrothion, an organophosphate insecticide. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. 1973;30(5):651-655.
Mileson BE, Chambers JE, Chen WL, Dettbarn W, Ehrich M, Eldefrawi AT, Gaylor DW, Hamernik K, Hodgson E, Karczmar AG, Padilla S, Pope CN, Richardson RJ, Saunders DR, Sheets LP, Sultatos LG, Wallace KB. Common mechanism of toxicity: A case study of organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicological Sciences. 1998;41:8-20.
Bhagyalakshmi A, Sreennivasula RP, Ramamurthi R. In-vivo sub-acute physiological stress induced by sumithion on some aspects of oxidative metabolism in the freshwater crab. Water Air Soil Pollution. 1984;23:257-262.
Repetto G, Sanz P, Repetto M. In-vivo and in-vitro effect of triclorfon on esterases of thevred cray fish, Procambarus clarkki. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1988;41(4):597-603.
Lignot JH, Spanings-Pierrot C, Charmantier G. Osmoregulatory capacity as a tool in monitoring the physiological condition and the effect of stress in crustaceans. Aquaculture. 2000;191:209-245.
Chakraborthy M, Joy D. Genomic and biochemical changes in fish due to pesticide pollution. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2017;11(5):6-11.
Sunanda M, Rao JCS, Neelima P, Rao KG, Simhachalam G. Effects of chlorpyrifos (an organophosphate pesticide) in fish. International Journal for Pharma Science. 2016;39(1):299-305.
Martyniuk CJ, Sanchez BC, Szabo NJ, Denslow ND, Sepulveda MS. Aquatic contaminants alter genes involved in neurotransmitter synthesis and gonadotropin release in largemouth bass. Aquatic Toxicology. 2009;95:1-9.
Gruber SJ, Munn MD. Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides in agricultural waters and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition in common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology.1998;35:391-396.
Herrera NS, Mena F, Espinoza M, Romero A. Neurotoxicity of organophosphate pesticides could reduce the ability of fish to escape predation under low doses of exposure. Scientific Reports. 2019;9:1-11.
Sancho E, Ferrando MD, Andreu E. Sub-lethal effects of an organophosphate insecticide on the European eel, Anguilla anguilla. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 1997;36:57-65.
Ghazala, Mahboob S, Ahmad L, Sultana S, AlGhanim K, Al-Misned F, Ahmad Z. Fish cholinesterase as biomarkers of sub-lethal effects of organophosphorus and carbamates in tissues of Labeo rohita. Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Toxicology. 2014; 28:137-142.
Tripathi VK, Yadav RK. Effects of pesticide (organophosphorus) on aquatic fish Labeo rohita. International Journal for Chemical Science. 2015;13(2):625-640.
Soyingbe AA, Ogunyanwo OO, Hammed TB, Adesope, AO. Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of diazinon on total protein in Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus). Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2012;1(1):22-25.
Aswin B, Binhkumari S, Ravisankar S, Mohankumar M, Ambikadevi AP, Drishya MK. The effect of quinalphos on histopathological changes in the gills of freshwater fish, Anabus testudineus. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology. 2016;10(4):12-16.
Chitra KC, Pushpalatha E, Kannan VM. Quinalphos - induced antioxidant status and histopathological changes in the gills of the freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology. 2012;3(2):84-89.
Johal MS, Sharma ML, Ravneet. Impact of low dose of organophosphate monocrotophos on the epithelial cells of gills of Cyprinus carpio communis Linn-SEM study. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2007;28(3):663-667.
Chitra KC, Nikhila P, Asifa KP. Short term exposure to quinalphos induced biochemical and hematological changes in freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Journal of Advanced Laboratory Research in Biology. 2013;3(1):1-6.
Sadiqul IM, Kabir SM, Ferdous Z, Mansura KM, Khalilur RM. Chronic exposure to quinalphos shows biochemical changes and genotoxicity in erythrocytes of silver barb, Barbonymus gonionotus. Interdisciplinary Toxicology. 2017;10(3):99-100.
Nannu MTA, Mostakim GM, Khatun MH, Rahman MK, Sadiqul MI. Hematological and histo-architectural damages in the kidney and liver of Nile Tilapia on exposure to kinalux. Progressive Agriculture. 2015;26:173-178.
Pakhare NB, Reddy KR. Effects of quinalphos (25%EC) on protein content in different tissues of the freshwater fish, Channa gachua (Hamilton, 1822). International Journal for Research in Applied Science and Engineering Technology. 2017;5(12):987-991.
Bakry NMS, El- Rashidy AH, Eldefrawi AT, Eldefrawi ME. Direct actions of organophosphate anticholinesterase on nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Journal of Biochemistry and Toxicology. 1988;3:23-259.
Brezenoff HE, McGee J, Knight V. The hypertensive response to soman and its relation to brain acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica. 1984;55:270-277.
Mostakim GM, Zahangir M, Mishu MM, Rahman K Sadiqul MI. Alternation of blood parameters and histoarchitecture of liver and kidney of silver barb after chronic exposure to quinalphos. Journal of Toxicology. 2015;1-8.
Choudary C, Ray AK, Bhattacharya S, Bhattacharya S. Non-lethal concentrations of pesticides impair ovarian function in the freshwater perch, Anabus testudineus. Environmental Biology of Fishes. 1993;36: 319-324.
Zerin T, Song HY, Kim YS. Quinalphos induced intracellular ROS generation and apoptosis in human alveolar A549 cells. Molecular and Cellular Toxicology. 2015; 11:61-69.
Gupta B, Rani M, Salunke R, Kumar R. In-vitro and in-vivo studies on degradation of quinalphos in rats. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2012;213-214:285-291.
Dwivedi PD, Das M, Khanna SK. Role of cytochrome P-450 in quinalphos toxicity: Effects on hepatic and brain antioxidant enzymes in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1998;36:437-444.
Bagchi P, Chatterjee S, Ray A, Deb C. Effect of quinalphos, organophosphorus insecticide, on testicular steroidogenesis in fish, Clarias batrachus. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1990;44:871-875.
Mostakim GM, Mahbuba MM, Md. Khalilur R, Sadiqul IM. Chronic toxicity of organophosphorus pesticide quinlphos 25EC and its effects on the morphological alternations in the kidney and liver od silver barb (Barbonymus gonionotus). Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Environmental Aspects of Bengladesh. 2014;110-111.
Sastry KV, Siddiqui AA. Some hematological, biochemical and enzymological parameters of a freshwater teleost fish, Channa punctatus, exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of quinalphos. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 1984;22:8-13.
Levin ED, Swain HA, Donerly S, Linney E. Developmental chlorpyrifos effects on hatchling zebrafish swimming behaviour. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2004;26:719-723.
Somnuek C, Boonphakdee C, Cheevapom V, Tanaka K. Gene expression of acetylcholinesterase in hybrid catfish (Clarias gariepinus x Clarias macrocephalus) exposed to chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2009;30(1):83-88.
Celik I, Isik I. Neurotoxic effects of subacute exposure to dichlorvos and methyl parathion at sub-lethal dosages in rats. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2009;94:1-4.
Yen J, Donerly S, Levin ED, Linney EA. Differential acetylcholinesterase inhibition of chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion in larval zebrafish. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2011;33:735-741.
Krishnapriya R, Padmaja M. Study on individual and combined toxicity of quinalphos and dimethoate on certain neurological aspects of giant freshwater prawn Macrobachium rosenbergii (Deman, 1879). International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications. 2014;4(5):1-5.
Hassani S, Maqbool F, Salek-Maghsoudi A, Rahmani S, Shabdoorestan MC, Nili-Ahmadabadi A, Amini M, Norouzi P, Abdollahi M Alternation of hepatocellular antioxidant gene expression pattern and biomarkers of oxidative damage in diazinon-induced acute toxicity in Wister rat: A time course mechanistic study. EXCLI Journal. 2018;17:57-71.
Zinkl JG, Shea PJ, Nakamoto RJ, Callman J. Brain cholinesterase activity of Rainbow Trout poisoned by carbaryl. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1987;38:29-35.
Chebbi SG, David M. Behavioural and respiratory responses of the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio (L) under quinalphos intoxication in sub-lethal tenures. Online Journal of Veterinary Research. 2009;13(1):15-25.
Tahara M, Kubota R, Nakazawa H, Tokunaga H, Nishimura T. Use of cholinesterase activity as an indicator for the effects of combinations of organophosphorus pesticides in water from environmental sources. Water Research. 2005; 39:5112-5118.
Damodaran TV, Jones KH, Patel AG, Abou-Donia MB. Sarin (nerve agent GB) - induced differential expression on of mRNA coding for cholinesterase gene in the rat central nervous system. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2003; 65:2041-2047.
Bocquene, G., Galgani, F. and Truquet, P. (1990). Characterisation and assay conditions for use of AchE activity from several marine species in pollution monitoring. Marine Environmental Research. 2003;30:75-89.
Ferrari A, Venturino A, de D’Angelo AMP. Time course of brain cholinesterase inhibition and recovery following acute and sub-acute azinphosmethyl, parathion and carbaryl exposure in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2004;57:420-425.
Sultatos LG, Costa LG, Murphy SD. Factors involved in the differential acute toxicity of the insecticides chlorpyrifos and methyl chlorpyrifos in mice. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1982;65:144-152.
Jitsunari F, Asakawa F, Nakajima T, Shimada J, Ogata M. Determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol level in the urine of termite control workers using chlorpyrifos. Acta Medica Okayama. 1989;43:299-306.
Barron MG, Plakar SM, Wilga PC. chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics and metabolism following intravascular dietary administration in channel catfish. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1991;108:474-482.
Jin Y, Liu Z, Peng T, Fu Z. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: A survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behaviour, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2015;43:405-414.
Rao JV, Kavitha P. In-vitro effects of chlorpyrifos on the acetylcholinesterase activity of euryhaline fish, Oreochromis mossambicus. Z. Naturforsch. 2010;65C:303-306.
Sultatos LG, Murphy SD. Hepatic microsomal detoxification of the organophosphates paraoxon and chlorpyrifos in mouse. Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 1983;11:232-238.
Chambers JE, Chambers HW. Oxidative desulfuration of chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and leptophod by rat brain and liver. Journal of biochemistry and Toxicology. 1989; 4:201-203.
Richardson RJ. Assessment of the neurotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos relative to other organophosphorus compounds: A critical review of the literature. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health: Current issues. 1995;44(2):135-165.
Eto M. Organophosphorus pesticides: Organic and biological biochemistry, Boca Raton, Fla: CRC press;1979.
Nolan RJ, Rick DL, Freshour NL, Sounders JH. Chlorpyrifos: Pharmacokinetics in human volunteers. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1984;73:8-15.
Sunaga M, Yoshida M, Hara I. Metabolism and urinary excretion of chlorpyrifos in rats. Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi. 1989;43:1124-1129.
Capodicasa E, Scapellato ML, Moretto A, Caroldi S, Lotti M. Chlorpyrifos induced delayed polyneuropathy. Archives of Toxicology. 1991;65:150-155.
Richardson RJ, Moore TB, Kayyali US, Fowke JH, Randall JC. Inhibition of hen brain acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase by chlorpyrifos in vivo and kinetics of inhibition by chlorpyrifos oxon in vitro: Application to assessment of neuropathic risk. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology. 1993;20:273-279.
Ecobison DJ. Organophosphorus ester insecticides. In Pesticides and Neurological disease (D. J Ecobison and R. M Joy, eds.) pp 151-203.Boca Raton, Fla: CRC press. 1982.
Murphy SD. Toxic effects of pesticides. In Casarett and Doull's toxicology: The basic science of poisons, 3rd ed. (C. D Klaassen, M. O Amdur and J. Doull eds.) New York: Macmillan. 1989;519-581.
Taylor P. Anticholinesterase agents. In Goodman and Gilman’s, the Pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 8th ed. (A. G Gilman, T.W Rall, A. S Nies and P. Taylor, eds.) New York: Pergamon press. 1990;131-149.
Lotti M, Moretto A, Zoppellari T, Dainese R, Rizzuto N, Barusco G. Inhibition of lymphocytic neuropathy target esterase predicts the development of organophosphate -induced polyneuropathy. Archives of Toxicology. 1986; 59:176-179.
Pope CN, Chakraborti TK, Chapman ML, Farrar JD, Arthun D. Comparison of in-vivo cholinesterase inhibition in neonatal and adult rats by three organophosphorothioate insecticides. Toxicology. 1991;68:51-61.
Pope CN, Chakraborti TK, Chapman ML, Farrar JD. Long term neurochemical and behavioural effects induced by acute chlorpyrifos treatment. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour. 1992;42:251-256.
Chambers JE, Carr RL. Inhibition pattern of brain acetylcholinesterase and hepatic and plasma aliesterases following exposure to three phosphorothioate insecticides and their oxons in rats. Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology. 1993;21:111-119.
Johnson MK. The delayed neurotoxic effects of some organophosphorus compounds. Biochemistry Journal. 1969;114:711-717.
Bloch H, Hottinger A. The effect of vitamin E on the creatinuria due to poisoning with tricresylphosphate. Zeitschrift fur Vitaminforschung. 1943;13:9-18.
Fukato TR. Mechanisms of action of organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1990; 87:245-254.
Eldefrawi AT, Jett D, Eldefrawi ME. Direct actions of organophosphorus anticholinesterases and muscarinic receptors. In Organophosphates- Chemistry, Fate and Effect (J. E Chambers and P. E Levi, Eds.), Academic Press, San Diego. 1992;258-270.
Silveria CP, Eldefrawi AT, Eldefrawi ME. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1990;103:474-481.
Huff RA, Corcoran JJ, Anderson JK, Abou- Donia MB. Chlorpyrifos- oxon binds directly to muscarinic receptors and inhibits cAMP accumulation in rat striatum. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 1994;269:329-335.
Ward TR, Mundy WR. Organophosphorus compounds preferentially affect second messenger systems coupled to M2/M4 receptors in rat frontal cortex. Brain Research Bulletin. 1996;39:49-55.
Katz EJ, Cortes VL, Eldefrawi ME, Eldefrawi AT. Chlorpyrifos, parathion and their oxons bind to and desensitize a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: Relevance to their toxicities. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1997;146:227-236.
Choudhuri J, Chakraborti TK, Chanda S, Pope CN. Differential modulation of organophosphorus- sensitive muscarinic receptors in rat brain by parathion and chlorpyrifos. Journal of Biochemistry and Toxicology. 1993;8:207-216.
Nathanson NM. Molecular propertirs of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Annual Review on Neuroscience. 1987;10:195-236.
Clioff CL, el- Fakahany EE. Decreased binding of the muscarinic antagonist [3H] N-methylscopolamine in mouse brain following acute treatment with an organophosphate. European Journal of Pharmacology. 1986a; 132:147-154.
Elhert FJ, Kokka N, Fairhurst AS. Altered [3H] quinuclidinyl benzilate binding in the striatum of rats following chronic cholinesterase inhibition with diisopropylfluorophosphate. Molecular Pharmacology. 1980;17(1): 24-30.
Clioff CL, el- Fakahany EE. Short-term desensitization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in mouse neuroblastoma cells: Selective loss of agonist low-affinity and pirenzepine high-affinity binding sites. Journal of pharmacology and Experimental Therapy. 1986b;238(3):916-23.
Kohanski RA, Andrews JP, Wins P, Eldefrawi ME, Hess GP A simple quantitative assay of 125I- labelled alpha-bungarotoxin binding to soluble and membrane-bound acetylcholine receptor protein. Analytical Chemistry. 1977; 80(2):531-539.
Eldefrawi ME, Eldefrawi AT, Aronstam RS, Maleque MA, Warnick JE, Albuquerque EX. [3H] Phencyclidine: a probe for the ionic channel of the nicotinic receptor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America. 1980;77(12):7458-7462.
Huganir RL, Racker E. Properties of proteoliposomes reconstituted with acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo California. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1982;257(16):9372-9378.
Hess GP, Udagaonkar JB, Olbricht WL. Chemical kinetic measurements of a mammalian acetylcholine receptor by a Fast-reaction technique. Annual Review on Biophysics and Chemistry. 1984;16:507-534.
Closse A, Bittiger H, Langenegger D, Wanner A. Binding studies with [3H] cis-methyl dioxolane in different tissue. Archives of Pharmacology. 1987;335:372-377.
Waelbroeck M, Gillard M, Robberecht P, Christophe J. Muscarinic receptor heterogeneity in rat central nervous system. 1. Binding of four selective antagonists to three muscarinic receptor subclasses: a comparison with M2 cardiac muscarinic receptors of the C- type. Molecular Pharmacology. 1987;32:91-99.
Waelbroeck M, Camus J, Tastenoy M, Christophe J. 80% of muscarinic receptors expressed by the NB-OK 1 human neuroblastoma cell line show high affinity for pirenzepine and comparable to rat hippocampus M1 receptors. FEBS Letters. 1988;226(2):287-290.
Savage EP, Keefe TJ, Mounce LM, Heaton RK, Lewis JA, Burcar PJ. Chronic neurological sequelae of acute organophosphate pesticide poisoning. Archives of Environmental Health. 1988; 43:38-45.
Rosenstock L, Keifer M, Daniell WE, McConnell R, Calypoole K. Chronic central nervous system effects of acute organophosphate pesticide intoxication. Lancet. 1991;338:223-227.
Steenland K, Jenkins B, Ames RG, O' Malley M, Chrislip D, Russo J. Chronic neurological sequelae to organophosphate pesticide poisoning. American Journal of Public Health. 1994;84:731-736.
Stephens R, Spurgeon A, Calvert IA, Beach J, Levy LS, Harrington JM. (1995). Neuropsychological effects of long-term exposure to organophosphates in sheep clip. Lancet. 1991;345:1135-1139.
Singh MM, Kay SR. Cholinergic processes in schizophrenia. World Journal of Psychosynthesis. 1976;8:34-41.
Karczmar AG, Richardson DL. Cholinergic mechanisms and neuropsychiatric adaptive dysfunction. In Brain Acetylcholine and Neuropsychiatric Disease (M.M Singh and H. Lal, eds.) In press. Plenum, New York; 1984.
Drachman DA. Central cholinergic system and memory. In Psychopharmacology: A Generation of Progress (M.A Lipton, A. DiMascio and K. F Killam eds.) Raven Press, New York. 1978;651-662.
Davis KL, Mohs RC, Davis BM, Rosenberg GS, Horvath TH, Denigris Y. Cholinometic agents and human memory: Preliminary oveervations in Alzheimer's disease. In Cholinergic Mechanisms (G.Pepeu and H Ladinsky, eds.), Plenum, New York. 1981;929-936.
Karczmar AG. Brain acetylcholine and animal electrophysiology. In Brain Acetylcholine and Neuropsychiatric Disease (K.L Davis and P. A Berger, eds.). Plenum, New York. 1979;263-310.
Hoskins B, Ho IK. Tolerance to organophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitors. In Organophosphorus compounds: Chemistry, Fate and Effects (J. E Chambers and P. E Levi, eds.).San Diego: Academic press. 1992;285-297.
Costa LG, Schwab BW, Murphy SD. Differential alternations of cholinergic muscarinic receptors in chronic and acute tolerance to organophosphorus insecticides. Biochemistry and Pharmacology. 1982;31: 3407-3413.
Costa LG, Murphy SD. [3H] -nicotine binding in rat brain: Alternation after chronic acetyl cholinesterase inhibition. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapy. 1983;226:392- 397.
Lim PK, Hoskins B, Ho IK. Evidence for the involvement of presynaptic cholinergic functions in tolerance to diisopropylfluorophosphate. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1987;90:465- 476.
Maxwell DM. Detoxification of organoph- osphorus compounds by carboxylesterase. In Organophosphorus compounds: Chemistry, Fate and Effects, (J. E Chambers and P. E Levi, eds.) San Diego: Academic Press. 1992;183-199.
Blohova J, Plhalova L, Hostovsky M, Divisova L, Dobsikova R, Mikulikova I, Strepanova, S, Svobodova Z. Oxidative stress responses in zebrafish, Danio rerio after sub-chronic exposure to atrazine. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2013;61:82-85.
Pancheo JL, Gonsebatt ME. The role of antioxidants and antioxidant- related enzymes in protective responses to environmentally induced oxidative stress. Mutation Research /Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis. 2009;674:137-147.
Davies KJA. Protein damage and degradation by oxygen radicals. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1987;267 (20):9895-9901.
Ighodaro OM, Akinloye OA. First line defence antioxidants- superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx): Their fundamental role in the entire antioxidant defence grid. Alexandria Journal of Medicine. 2018;54:287-293.
Hemalatha D, Amala A, Rangasamy B, Nataraj B, Ramesh M. Sub-lethal toxicity of quinalphos on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses in a freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio. Wiley Periodicals. 2015;1-8.
Hamed HS. Impact of a short-term malathion exposure of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): The protective role of selenium. International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. 2015;3(5-1):30-37.
Bakir B, Erdag D, Yildiz SE, Sari ER, Asker H, Sozmen M. Immunohistochemical examination on the effects of malathion and Onosma nigricaule (Boraginaceae) on the catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase-2 (Mn-SOD) in renal tissues of mice. Ankara Univ Vet Fak Derg. 2017;64:125-130.
Subramaneyaan M, Jain S, Yadav C, Arora VK, Banerjee BD, Ahmed RS. Quinalphos induced oxidative stress and histoarchitectural alternations in adult male albino rats. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2012;34:673-678.
Kokilavani P, Suryakalaa U, Elumalai P, Abirami B, Ramachandran R, Sankarganesh A, Achiraman S. Antioxidant mediated ameliorative steroidogenesis by Commelina benghalensis L. and Cissus quadrangularis L. against quinalphos induced male reproductive toxicity. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology. 2014;109:18-33.
Ramya V, Asifa KP, Chitra KC. Quinalphos - induced alternation on the antioxidant defence system in subcellular fraction of gills in freshwater fish, Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852). International Journal of Advanced Research in Biological Science. 2015;2(12):234-240.
Padmanabha A, Reddy HRV, Bhat A, Khavi M. Quinalphos induced oxidative stress biomarkers in liver and kidney of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. Nature Environment and Pollution Technology. 2015;14(4):871-876.
Abhijith BD, Ramesh M, Poopal RK. Responses of metabolic and antioxidant enzymatic activities in gill, liver and plasma of Catla catla during methyl parathion exposure. The Journal of Basic and Applied Zoology. 2016;77:31-40.
Ajith BS, Jayaprakash CA. Effect of an organophosphate insecticide, dimethoate, on antioxidant enzymes of the fish Nile Tilapia, (Oreochromis niloticus) (L.). International Journal of Science and Research. 2017; 6(11):2128-2132.
Limaye PV, Raghuram N, Sivakami S. Oxidative stress and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in the renal cortex of Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 2003;243:147-152.
Nahas AF, Abdel-Razek MAS, Helmy NM, Mahmoud S, Ghazy HA. Impaired antioxidant gene expression by pesticide residues and its relation with other cellular biomarkers in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) from lake Burullus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2017;137:202-209.
Liu S, Yuan L, Yue X, Zheng Z, Tang Z. Recent trends in nanosensors for organophosphate pesticide detection. Advanced Powder Technology. 2008;19(5):419-441.
Prasad R, Bhattacharyya A, Nguyen QD. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Recent developments, challenges and perspectives. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2017; 8:1014.
Abstract View: 445 times
PDF Download: 23 times