IMPACT OF FRUIT BATS (Rousettus leschenaulti AND Cynopterus sphinx) IN THE TROPICAL ECOSYSTEM OF TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

PDF

Published: 2022-05-11

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i83006

Page: 1-19


M. STEPHEN

PG and Research Center of Zoology, Scott Christian College(Autonomous), Nagercoil, 629003, India.

C. ALBERT

Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, 627012, Tamil Nadu, India.

G. PETCHIAMMAL

Zoology Department and Research Centre, Sarah Tucker College(Autonomous), Tirunelveli, 627007, India.

JULIET VANITHARANI *

Affiliated to Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Abishekapatti, Tirunelveli, 627012, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Fruit bat diversity available in the ecosystem of Tirunelveli District is important for pollinating flowers and seed dispersal. Two common megachiropterans Rousettus leschnaulti (fulvous fruit bat) and Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat) interacting in different agro and tropical forest ecosystem of Tirunelveli district has been selected as study animals for this impact analysis. Various food selections, processing strategies, the economical and ecological importance of bat dependent plants have provided a glimpse on the fruit bat’s bio-agent role in the ecosystem. Identification of left outs from the feeding roosts, observations with video recording and mist-netting in the foraging areas is the documented data for fruit bat–plant interdependence. Their species specific dietary preferences immensely help to retain the community structures and long time survival of specific taxa in the ecosystem. In spite of their special role they have attracted little recognition under Indian government legislations and policies. The documented species specific impact and ecosystem services of R. leschnaulti and C. sphinx in the Tropical ecosystem is the field proof data which can be of use to revise the status of fruit bats under Schedule V, Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.

Keywords: Megachiropteran, bat–plant interdependence, bio-agent, dietary preferences


How to Cite

STEPHEN, M., ALBERT, C., PETCHIAMMAL, G., & VANITHARANI, J. (2022). IMPACT OF FRUIT BATS (Rousettus leschenaulti AND Cynopterus sphinx) IN THE TROPICAL ECOSYSTEM OF TIRUNELVELI DISTRICT, TAMIL NADU, INDIA. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 43(8), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i83006

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Juliet Vanitharani. Impact of Bat plant Interaction in the forest restoration of Kalakad Mundanthurai tiger Reserve, Southern Western Ghats. Bat Research News. 2007; Vol. 48: No.3.

Kumaravelu. Forestry research in Tamil Nadu past, present and future. Pub: Tamil Nadu Forest Department (Govt.of India). 2007; 26.

Thomas H. Kunz, Elizabeth Braun de Torrez, Dana Bauer, Tatyana Lobova and Theodore H. Fleming.. Eco system services provided by bats .Ecology and Conservation Biology.2011

Juliet Vanitharani, Angel Paulina R, Viji Margaret I, et al. Role of Cynopterus brachyotis (Lesser Dog Faced Fruit Bat), Cynopterus sphinx (Short Nosed Fruit Bat) in Forest Restoration of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve. Recent Advances in Biodiversity of India. 2012c; Chapter: 51, 1-529P.

Ramírez-Fráncel, García-Herrera, Losada-Prado,Reinoso-Flórez, Sánchez-Hernández .2022 Bat and their vital ecosystem services : a global review. Integrative Zoology 2021; 0: 1–22

Vanitharani J. Studies on the changes of wing morphology and body weight in few species of South Indian bats. Ph.D. Dissertation, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India. 1996.

Juliet Vanitharani, Anita Suganya Mary S, Kumaravelu G, et al. Fruit bats the reliable pollinators and seed dispersers in the forests of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) India. Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Biology. 2007; Vol. 4 (2): 75-84.

Fleming TH. Foraging strategies of plant-visiting bats. Ed: T.H. Kunz. Pub: Ecology of Bats. Plenum Press, New York. 1982 ; 287-325.

Lobova TA, Scott A, Mori, et al. Cecropia as a Food Resource for Bats in French Guiana and the Significance of Fruit Structure in Seed Dispersal and Longevity. American J.of Botany 2003; 90(3): 388–403.

Kunz TH, Fenton MB. Bat Ecology. Ed:Thomas H.Kunz and Brock Fenton. Pub: The University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 2003.

Fleming TH, EBY P. Ecology of bat migration, Bat ecology. editors: Kunz TH, Fenton MB. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Illinois. 2003; 156– 208.

Thiele J, Winter Y. Hierarchical strategy for relocating food targets in flower bats: Spatial memory versus cue-directed search. Animal Behaviour. 2005; 69(2), 315–327.

Carter GG, Ratcliffe JM, Galef BG Flower Bats (Glossophaga soricina) and Fruit Bats (Carollia perspicillata) Rely on Spatial Cues over Shapes and Scents When Relocating Food. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(5): e10808.

Juliet Vanitharani. Bat-Plant Chemical Signaling a Boon for Conservation of Endangered Fauna and Flora of Southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Adavnced Biotechnology. 2011; Vol.10(10): 61- 66.

Freeman Pw. Frugivorous and animalivorous bats (Microchiroptera): dental and cranial adaptations. Bio. J. of the Linn. Soc. 1988; 33: 249-272.

Norberg UM, Rayner JMV. Ecological morphology and flight in bats; wing adapatations, flight performance, foraging strategy and echolocation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of Lond B. 1987; 316:335-427.

Tang ZH, Sheng LX, Cao, et al. Diet of Cynopterus sphinx and Rousettus leschenaulti in Xishuangbanna. Acta Theriologica Sinica. 2005; 25:367–372.

Whittaker RJ, Jones SH. The role of frugivorous bats and birds in the rebuilding of a tropical forest ecosystem, Krakatau, Indonesia. J. Biogeogr. 1994; 21, 245-258.

Juliet Vanitharani, Jeyapraba L, Kavitha Bharathi B. Bat-Plant Interaction and Their Impact in the Musal and Kurusadai Island Ecosystems of Gulf of Mannar,India. Journal of Theoretical and Experimental Biology. 2012a; 8 (1 and 2): 35-44.

Kunz TH, Racey PA. Bat Biology and Conservation. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Wendeln MC, Rankle JR, Kalko EKV. Nutritional values of 14 species of figs and bat feeding preferences in Panama. Biotropica. 2000; 32:489-501.

Dumont ER. The effect of food hardness on feeding behaviour in frugivorous bats (family: Phyllostomidae): an experimental study. Journal of Zoology. 1999; 248:219– 229.

Utzurrum RCB. Feeding ecology of Philippine fruit bats: patterns of resource use

and seed dispersal. Sym. of Zool. Soc. of Lon. 1995; 67:63-77.

Willig MR, Camino GR, Noble SJ. Dietary overlap in frugivorous and insectivorous bats from edaphic cerrado habitats of Brazil. Journal of Mammalogy. 1993; 74: 117-128.

Fleming TH. The short tailed Fruit Bat: A study in Plant – Animal Interactions. Pub: The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 1988.

Banack SA . Diet selection and resource use by flying foxes (Genus Pteropus). Ecology. 1998; 79: 1949- 1967.

Dumont ER, Irvine AK. Old World bat fruits; diversity and implications for pteropodid ecology. Bat Research News. 1998; 39: 166.

Vanitharani J, Chelladurai V, Pearch MJ, et al. Seed dispersal role of Latidens salimalii –endemic endangered fruit bat of South India. Proceedings of the Workshop on seed dispersal and Frugivory in Asia; Xishuangbanna, Yunnan,China. 2004.

Juliet Vanitharani, Singaravelan N, Marimuthu G. Population, Ecology and Conservation of Salim Ali’s Fruit Bat (Latidens Salimalii) Rare Animals of India. Bentham Science Publishers, Sharjah, UAE. 2013; 156- 174.

Juliet Vanitharani. Bat-Plant Chemical Signaling a Boon for Conservation of Endangered Fauna and Flora of Southern Western Ghats, India. Journal of Adavnced Biotechnology. 2011; Vol.10(10) 61-66.

Juliet Vanitharani, Martina Pandian. A Probe into Chemical Signaling in Fruit Bats for Quick Forest Restoration in Foot Hill Reserves of Southern Western Ghats. Recent Advances in Biodiversity of India. Kolkata; Zoological survey of India: 2012b. ISBN : 978-81-8171-303-2 1-529.

Jeyapraba L. “Diversity, morphology and roosting ecology of a few bat species In Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve, southern Western Ghats, Ph.D disertation. Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli.2008.

Dumont ER, O’neal R. Food hardness and feeding behavior in Old World fruit bats (Pteropodidae). J. of Mam. 2004; 85:8–14.

Dumont ER. The correlated evolution of cranial morphology and feeding behavior in New World fruit bats. Fuctional and evolutionary ecology of bats. University of Chicago Press. 2006; 160–177.

Fleming H, Paul Racey. Island Bats: Evolution, Ecology, & Conservation. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA: 2010; vi + 547p.

Neuweiler G. The biology of bats. Published by Oxford University Press. 2001.

Angel Paulina R. Probe Into Bat-Plant Chemical Signaling with Reference to the Interaction of fruit bat Genus Cynopterus In the forests of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Riserve, southern Western Ghats, Ph.D disertation. Manonmaniam Sundaranar University Tirunelveli.2012.

Taylor D, Bright A R, Kankam O, et al. The role of the fruit bat, Eidolon helvum, in seed dispersal, survival, and germination in Milicia excelsa, a threatened West African hardwood. Bats.1997; Vol.9.N0.4.

Ruby J, Nathan PT, Balasingh J, et al. Chemical composition of fruits and leaves eaten by short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. J. of Chem. Ecol. 2000; 26(12): 2825-2841.

Donald WT On fruits, seeds and bats. In. Bats. 1991; 9 (4): 8-13.

Vogel S. Chiropterophilie in der neotropischen Flora: Neue Mitteilungen I. Flora. 1968; 157:562-602.

Vogel S. Chiropterophilie in der neotropischen Flora: Neue Mitteilungen II. Flora. 1969a; 158:185-222.

Vogel S. Chiropterophilie in der neotropischen Flora: Neue Mitteilungen III. Flora. 1969b; 158:289-323.

Faegri K, van der Piji L. The Principles of Pollination Ecology. 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 1971.

Bestmann HJ, Winkler L, von Helversen O.Headspace analysis of volatile flower scent constituents of bat-pollinated plants. Phytochemistry. 1997; 46: 1169-1172.

Helversen O, von L, Winkler HJ, et al. Sulphur containing "perfumes" attract flower-visiting bats. J .Comp. Physiol. A. 2000; 186: 143- 153.

Jacobs GH. Ultraviolet vision in vertebrates. American Zool. 1992; 32: 544-554.

Jacobs GH. The distribution and nature of colour vision among the mammals. Biological

Reviews. 1993; 68: 413-471.

Helversen O, Winter york. Glossophgine bats and their flowers :Costsand benefits for plants and pollinators. Bat Ecology Ed:Thomas H.Kunz and Brock Fenton. Pub: The University of Chicago Press. Chicago. 2003; 346-397.

Fleming TH, Estrada A. Frugivory and seed dispersal: Ecological and Evolutionary Aspects. The Netherlands: Dordrecht; 1996.

Shilton LA, Altringham JD, Compton SG, et al. Old World fruit bats can be longdistance seed dispersers through extended retention of viable seeds in the gut. Proceedings of . R. Soc. London. 1999; 266 : 219- 223.

Burr B, Rosen D, Barthlott W. Untersuchungen zur Ultraviolettreflexion von Angiospermenblüten. III. Dillenidae and Asteridae s.l. Tropische und Subtropische Pflanzenwelt. 1995; 95:1-185.