Fruit bat diversity available in the ecosystem of Tirunelveli District is important for pollinating flowers and seed dispersal. Two common megachiropterans Rousettus leschnaulti (fulvous fruit bat) and Cynopterus sphinx (greater short-nosed fruit bat) interacting in different agro and tropical forest ecosystem of Tirunelveli district has been selected as study animals for this impact analysis. Various food selections, processing strategies, the economical and ecological importance of bat dependent plants have provided a glimpse on the fruit bat’s bio-agent role in the ecosystem. Identification of left outs from the feeding roosts, observations with video recording and mist-netting in the foraging areas is the documented data for fruit bat–plant interdependence. Their species specific dietary preferences immensely help to retain the community structures and long time survival of specific taxa in the ecosystem. In spite of their special role they have attracted little recognition under Indian government legislations and policies. The documented species specific impact and ecosystem services of R. leschnaulti and C. sphinx in the Tropical ecosystem is the field proof data which can be of use to revise the status of fruit bats under Schedule V, Indian Wildlife Protection Act 1972.
Just as the smell gets diluted by ventilation, the dangerous concentration of the virus can also get reduced by ensuring appropriate amount of outdoor air flows in. In closed and stale space droplets and aerosol gets quickly concentrated and greatly increases the risk of transmission of virus in that area. Visit to any nearby shopping malls, newly furnished coaching classes, modern residential buildings, government offices, hotels, restaurants and even hospitals shows that they are nothing but an assortment of closed and unventilated spaces. These closed space acts as Super spreader of the virus. Peak test positive rate of 22.6% per hundred test is observed during the month of May, which is a result of high humidity particulate matter concentration temperature CO2 concentration.
Insect pollinators play a vital role in the ecosystem. Pollinators visit different wild plants and crops for their feed. Recently the pollinators are under great threat and their reduction in population may lead to profound economic and environmental consequences. Here, we strongly insist that various anthropogenic activities – degradation of forest, pesticide and insecticide use, climate change. To try and understand the link between pesticide use on pollinator communities, and how this might impact on their population reduction or loss, we took a complementary approach of survey by preparing a questionnaire with 20 basic questions. The survey was taken in and around Coimbatore and Tirupur district to collect the information like the usage of nature of pesticides and insecticides. At times the synthetic pesticides may be directly or indirectly affecting the insects based on the nature of the chemicals. The outcome of the survey was about how the usage of certain insecticide affects the pollinators life cycle directly or indirectly. The pollinating insects were not targeted directly but as non- target species they are affected a lot. It is need of the hour to concentrate and conserve the pollinators as per the thought of the great scientist Albert Einstein: “If the bee disappears from the surface of the Earth, man would have no more than four years left to live.”
Pesticides are not only dangerous to the environment, but also hazardous to a person's health. Studies on pesticides have clearly established their link to cancer, Alzheimer's Disease, ADHD, birth defects and many more. Rogor is one of the organophosphates extensively used in agricultural practice. It is highly soluble in water for which it can easily enter into the nearby water sources and affect aquatic organisms. In the present study we have planned to observe the effects of rogor in some biochemical parameters in freshwater cat fish Clarias magur. Based on the LC50, we used two sub-lethal concentrations of Rogor - 1/5th (i.e; 13 mg/L) and 1/10th (i.e; 6.5mg/L) in our experiment. After 7 consecutive days of treatment, we have observed a dose dependent decrease in protein, glycogen and lipid content in both liver and muscle of the treated fishes. The amount of protein, glycogen and lipid was decreases with the increasing concentration of the rogor and the results were significant at 0.1 (P<0.1). The amount of blood glucose and total blood cholesterol was also decreases with increasing concentration of rogor.
The provision of urban infrastructure like water service has become a major concern in many developed and developing countries. Access to safe water and sanitary means of waste disposal is universal needs and indeed basic human rights. Besides, they are essential elements of human development and poverty alleviation and constitute an obligatory component of primary health care. The main objective of this study is to assess issues, challenges and management of urban household water supply: in case of Durame city, Kambata Tembaro Zone, SNNP Region. The study is descriptive in its nature and both qualitative and quantitative research Approach with a sample size of 120 which selected through systematic random sampling method used. Interview questionnaires were employed for data collection. Lastly the data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools like frequency and percentage. The study findings revealed that factors like, shortage of water at the sources; rapid population growth, electric power failure, and rapid urbanization were classified to be main causes of water supply shortage to the city communities. The gap between demand and output is increasing from year to year as a result of the aforementioned primary factors. Water source for the city entirely relying only on groundwater is not enough. The study therefore recommends that the groundwater source has to be enlarged by surface water through water conservation techniques. Therefore, as a long- run solution to water supply shortage in the city great attention should be given for surface water development. Furthermore, surface water might serve as a recharging source for groundwater sources in the surrounding area. Through water conservation techniques around the water potential areas (boreholes sites) groundwater have to be recharged so as to balance the recharging and discharging rates. On the other hand, bottom-up community engagement should be promoted, and existing women's groups such as religious, trade, and professional associations should be involved in order to debate how to utilize water responsibly.
The Aim: This work to study Histopathological Changes in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Local Chickens Infected with Parasite Choanotaenia infundibulum.
Place and Duration of Study: Raillietina cesticillus samples were obtained from the veterinary hospital with the help of specialized doctors.
Study Design: A total of ten domestic hens infected with Choanotaenia infundibulum were investigated between March and July 2021 at the veterinary facility in Najaf Province, Iraq
Methodology: Pathologically, there was a visible enlargement of the bowel, whereas histologically, alterations were more subtle. Unmistakable signs include inflammation of the epithelial layer and an abundance of cellular infiltration. Chronic inflammation and cell fragmentation in the epithelium
Results: Macular degeneration as a result of the presence of this causes the villi to become disintegrated, removing any trace of the epithelial cells that line the digestive tract's villi and glands.
Conclusion: It is noted that there is a smashing of the tops of the villi, sloughing, smashing, and inflammation in the epithelial layer of a wall accompanied by a large infiltration of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils
This study was conducted to assess Indigenous Knowledge of Cattle Keeping in Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Three districts (Shashogo, Misha and Soro) were purposively selected from each category. A total of 90 households owning cattle with 10 extension workers were selected randomly. There was significant (p<0.05) difference across the districts in livestock number per households. Hadiya people keep large size of herd considering it as a wealth, cultural and social security (mainly in Soro district).The motive behind the society is to secure the cultural title of ‘Tibima/Abegaz/Garad and Kumima’ which is attained in ascending order after achieving the first stage/title “Tibima/Garad” of possession of at least 100 cattle and the second, ’Kuma’’ title in which single individual can own more than 1000 cattle. The highest percent 91.7% of respondents in Shashogo and Soro, 85% of respondents in Misha keep cattle primarily for milk. The respondents revealed that cattle keepers, who dwell in low land areas, have the practices of allowing their cattle to scavenge and graze in early morning. This practice is locally named as ‘Waare’imma or waarechchaa’. The results of this study indicated that there is unexploited indigenous knowledge of cattle keeping in Hadiya Zone.
The three major histological components of hair are the shaft, the medulla and the cuticle. These properties have long been utilized to evaluate the nature and significance of personal identification. In human as well as in higher animal sexual dimorphism is an important key for personal identification. The present study attempted to understand the variation of some qualitative variables of hair within different species and between different primates Genus and to identify the sexual dimorphisms within different Species. Since Sexual Dimorphism is one of the major features of evolution sex differences in terms of different histomorphological and quantitative variables might be of basic interest for partial understanding of the evolutionary process. In order to understand that species specific variation and sexual dimorphism, medullary and shaft diameter of human and some non human primates were examined and measured in this present study. Results indicated prominent cases of sexual dimorphism in most of the primate species with regard to their shaft and medullary diameter. On the other hand, significant statistical differences were also noticed between the species with regard to their diameter of shaft and medulla. The obtained results cloud be very useful for the partial understanding of primate evolution on the basis of the quantitative morphological features of primate’s head hair strands.
The cestode parasites are endoparasites grow anaerobically in the intestine of vertebrate host. These parasites absorb digested food material from the hosts intestine .They get attached with their scolex hooks to intestinal wall. Many times the multiple worms in the intestine absorbs more food of host and host suffer from malnutrition and therefore causing various disorders and diseases to the host. Moneizia and Stilesia are the two common genera of cestodes infecting grazing mammals. There is very limited information is available about their study pertaining to population biology. This performed study is adding some survey based statistical information in cestode population biology.
The present study investigated the variety and abundance of migratory and resident birds in the confined agroforestry system of an educational farm, from July-October 2019, identifying each specimen with a metal band. With the aid of Howell & Webb’s specialized guide for birds of México and Northern Central America, a presence/absence analysis was carried out, along with first-order Chao 2, Chao 1, ICE and Jackknife species richness estimators; the difference between months observed was represented by a species accumulation curve, and data was evaluated with the Estimates (V.9.1) software. 540 specimens from 66 species, 44 genera, 19 familiae, and 6 orders were captured. The family Parulidae was the most abundant, as was the order Passeriformes; the greatest presence of species was recorded in September and October, with a predominance of 5 specific species. There were 15 recaptures of individuals from 11 species; one was recognized as endemic, 26 migratory species, 1 summer migratory species, 13 transient species, 24 resident species, and 2 species outside their normal distribution area. 3 species are listed in the NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010 standard, two are classified as “Subject to special protection” (Pr): Limnothlypis swainsonii and Passerina ciris, and one is classified as “Endangered” (A): Geothlypis tolmiei. Two of the represented bird species, Bubulcus ibis and Fulica americana, have been reported as carriers of the West Nile virus, a pathogen that has been recognized as the origin of a zoonosis that affects house animals and humans.