LETHALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SEA HARE (Dolabella auricularia) INK AGAINST THE FISH PATHOGENS

PDF

Published: 2022-11-12

DOI: 10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i213212

Page: 51-57


FABIO C. RUAZA JR. *

Department of Fisheries, Marine and Environmental Sciences, North Eastern Mindanao State University, Lianga Campus, Poblacion, Lianga, Surigao del Sur, Philippines.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

This study determined the potential of sea hare’s (Dolabella auricularia) ink as a microbial agent in fish pathogens. The output of this study provides additional information to replace the expensive and hazardous antibiotics that are already being applied in aquaculture. Six (6) fish pathogens were tested for antimicrobial assays. The results revealed that all of the six (6) pathogens undergo growth inhibition in different concentrations. The Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Vibrio cholera, and Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum activity (very active) against the Salmonella sp. and Proteus vulgaris with "partially active" observation. For the toxicity analysis for nauplii, the LC50 value is 529.12, indicating that the sea hare’s ink is moderately toxic. This is to recommend testing its bioactive secondary metabolites with the possibility of use in the enhancement of new pharmaceutical agents against aquaculture disease. A better understanding of its ink could lead us to the development of new therapeutics.

Keywords: Dolabella auricularia, fish pathogens, zone of inhibition, toxicity test


How to Cite

JR., F. C. R. (2022). LETHALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SEA HARE (Dolabella auricularia) INK AGAINST THE FISH PATHOGENS. UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, 43(21), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i213212

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). World agriculture: Towards 2015/2030. Interim report Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2003;1-166.

Hossain A, Islam S, Asif AA, Rahman H. Aqua medicines, drugs and chemicals (AMDC) used in freshwater aquaculture of South-Eastern Bangladesh. Asian Australas J Biosci Biotechnol. 2021;6(2):103-27.

DOI: 10.3329/aajbb.v6i2.56145

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Global forest resources assessment 2010. Main report Rome, Italy. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2010; 1-340.

Asif AA, Hossain A, Hamli H, Islam S, Kabir SL. Research trends of aqua medicines, drugs and chemicals (AMDC) in Bangladesh: the last decade’s (2011-2020) story to tell. Asian J Med Biol Res. 2021;7(2):90-106.

DOI: 10.3329/ajmbr.v7i2.54987

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Report Rome, Italy. State World Fish Aquacult. 2002;1-148.

Rodgers CJ, Furones MD. Antimicrobial agents in aquaculture: practice, needs and issues. In: Rogers C, editor Basurco B, editor. The use of veterinary drugs and vaccines in Mediterranean aquaculture. Zaragoza: CIHEAM; 2009;41-59.

Garrett ES, Dos Santos CL, Jahncke ML. Public, animal, and environmental health implications of aquaculture. Emerg Infect Dis. 1997;3(4):453-7.

DOI: 10.3201/eid0304.970406, PMID 9366596.

Reilly P, Howgate P, Kaferstein F. Safety hazards and the application of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point System (HACCP) in aquaculture. In: Martin RE, Collette RL, Slavi JW, editors. Fish inspection quality control and HACCP: A global focus. Lancaster: Technomic Publishing; 1997;3373: 353.

Tavares TCL, Nogueira VR, Batista GL, Melo VMM. A sea hare L-amino-acid oxidase to fight multiple antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Microbiol Exp. 2017; 4(6):00129.

Jung ME, Fahr BT, D’Amico DC. Total syntheses of the cytotoxic marine natural product, Aplysia pyranoid. J Org Chem. 1998;63(9):2982-7. DOI: 10.1021/jo972228j

Wessels JG. Developmental regulation of fungal cell wall formation. Annual review of phytopathology. 1994;32(1):413-37.

Kamiya H, Sakai R, Jimbo M. Bioactive molecules from sea hares. Prog Mol Subcell Biol. 2006;43:215-39.

DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-30880-5_10, PMID 17153345.

Kicklighter CE, Derby CD. Multiple components in ink of the sea hare Aplysia californica are aversive to the sea anemone Anthopleura sola. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol. 2006; 334(2):256-68.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jembe.2006.02.002.

Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC, Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am J Clin Pathol. 1966;45(4):493-6.

PMID 5325707.

Harwig J, Scott PM. Brine shrimp (Artemia salina L.) larvae as a screening system for fungal toxins. Appl Microbiol. 1971; 21(6):1011-6.

DOI: 10.1128/am.21.6.1011-1016.1971, PMID 5105681.

Finney DJ. Probit analysis, 3rd edition. England: Cambridge University Press; 1971.

Nguta J. Biological screening of kenya medicinal plants using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae). Pharmacol Online. 2011; 458-78.

Watanabe K, Umeda K, Kurita Y, Takayama C, Miyakado M. Two insecticidal monoterpenes, telfairine and Aplysia terpenoid A, from the red alga Plocamium telfairiae: Structure elucidation, biological activity, and molecular topographical consideration by a semiempirical molecular orbital study. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 1990;37(3):275-86.

DOI: 10.1016/0048-3575(90)90134-N

Jiménez C, Quiñoá E, Castedo L, Riguera R. Epidioxy sterols from the tunicates Dendrodoa grossularia and Ascidiella aspersa and the Gastropoda Aplysia depilans and Aplysia punctate. J Nat Prod. 1986;49(5):905-9.

DOI: 10.1021/np50047a023

Pereira RB, Andrade PB, Valentão P. Chemical diversity and biological properties of secondary metabolites from sea hares of Aplysia genus. Mar Drugs. 2016;14(2):39.

DOI: 10.3390/md14020039, PMID 26907303.

Johnson P, Kicklighter1 C, Schmidt M, Kamio M, Yang H, Elkin D, Michel W, Tai1 P, Derby C. Packaging of chemicals in the defensive secretory glands of the sea hare Aplysia californica. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 2006;209:78-88.

Vennila R, Rajeshkumar RK, Kanchana S, Arumugam M, Balasubramanian T. Investigation of antimicrobial and plasma coagulation property of some molluscan ink extracts: gastropods and cephalopods. Afr J Biochem Res. 2011;5(1):14-21.

Stallard MO, Faulkner DJ. Chemical constituents of the digestive gland of the sea hare Aplysia californica I. Importance of diet. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1974;49(1B):25-35.

DOI: 10.1016/0305-0491(74)90218-1, PMID 4369856.

Wessels M, König GM, Wright AD. New natural product isolation and comparison of the secondary metabolite content of three distinct samples of the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela from Tenerife. J Nat Prod. 2000;63(7): 920-8.

DOI: 10.1021/np9905721, PMID 10924166.