Original Research Article

HILL STREAM ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY OF BAKSA DISTRICT ALONG THE INTERNATIONAL BORDER BETWEEN INDIA AND BHUTAN: ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE AND ANTHROPOGENIC THREATS

AYUSH BARAL, SAROWAR ALOM, DEBOJIT MONDAL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 1-15

North-Eastern states are leaders in the diversity of indigenous species of economically important fish. Hill streams of this region inhabit ichthyofauna of broad importance. However, increased anthropogenic activity possess deleterious consequence. The goal of the study conducted from January 2021 to July 2022 was to document and report the ichthyofaunal diversity of the hill streams in the Baksa district of Assam, India, its economic importance as well as potential threats associated with it. A total of 3182 fishes classified into 39 species, 13 families, and 5 orders were documented. Cypriniformes is the dominant order (71.24%), followed by Perciformes (17.76%), Siluriformes (5.97%), Symbranchiformes (3.65%), and Beloniformes (1.38%). These hill streams inhabit endangered, vulnerable, near-threatened, lower-risk-near-threatened species (IUCN, CAMP, and ICAR). Diversity indices indicate that these streams are rich in evenly distributed ichthyofauna. However, the recent spike in riparian deforestation, illegal fishing, and tourism-related plastic garbage possess a serious threat to these hill-stream ecosystems and inhabiting fish fauna. The consequences of riparian deforestation are looming as a severe future issue. Conservation of this ecosystem has become an important call to take on.

Original Research Article

PATERNAL PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS BASED ON ZINC FINGER PROTEIN-Y (ZFY) GENE IN THE LAKOR GOAT BREED

RONY MARSYAL KUNDA, PIETER KAKISINA, MAMAN RUMANTA, MECHIAVEL MONIHARAPON, SLAMET DIAH VOLKANDARI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 16-22

This study aims to trace the kinship of the Lakor goat breed based on Paternal Linked using the Zinc Finger Protein-Y (ZFY) region on the Y-chromosome. This study began with non-invasive sampling (hair follicles) from 64 bucks (male individuals), followed by DNA extraction. The extracted DNA molecules are used as a template for amplification of the ZFY target region, with PCR and sequencing techniques. The PCR product of each target gene is sequenced to determine its nucleotide sequence. The molecular data of the target gene resulting from sequencing and DNA sequences obtained from the international database are aligned with the Clustal W program software present in MEGA version X. Phylogenetic analysis shows that the Lakor goat breed as monophyly above 90% bootstrap homology, and two haplotypes i.e C. aegagrus haplotype zI ZFY and the other in C. hircus haplotype Y1 ZFY. These haplotypes differ only in two nucleotides in our alignment, which is site 321 (C-T), in the haplotype C. aegagrus haplotype zI ZFY, and site 512 (G-A) in C. hircus haplotype Y1 ZFY.  Phylogenetic analysis indicated that C. aegagrus (bezoar) is the ancestor of the native goats in Indonesia, including the Lakor goats.

Original Research Article

ANTIBIOFILM AND IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF PIGMENT EXTRACTED FROM MARINE BACTERIA Kocuria flava (AP2)

ISHWARYA RAJENDRAN, THARANI JAYAKUMAR, GEETHA MANI, SANGEETHA DHAYALAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 32-39

Natural pigments can be obtained from various sources like plant, microorganisms, and marine algae because synthetic pigments have some toxicity issues and are carcinogenic to both products and workers. Therefore, it is thought that bacterial pigment is a crucial metabolic product beneficial to bacteria and may possess certain biological features like antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer activity. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the antibiofilm and anticancer activities of crude pigment extract from a marine bacterial isolate. The Antibiofilm assay was studied by the 96-well plate method. The pigment from K. flava (AP2) has the ability to inhibit biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter sp, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli. The optical density at 570 nm wavelength on a plate reader to quantify the overall bacterial growth in each well. Among the six strains, moderate biofilm inhibition were observed at 2.5 µg/ml. In-vitro anticancer activity of bacterial pigment extract was evaluated by MTT assay against human colon cancer (HT-29). As a result of the pigments' strong cytotoxic action, they could be employed as biological agents in medicine.

Original Research Article

TOXICO-PATHOLOGICAL ASSESSEMENT OF Nerium oleander ROOTS AND LEAVES ON WISTAR RAT

TOUNES MAAROUF, INES OTMANI, AMINA TALBI, ZAHRA HAMAMDIA, FATIHA BENDALI-SAOUDI, CHERIF ABDENNOUR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 40-50

The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic effects of Nerium oleander roots (R) and leaves (L) aqueous extract on Wistar rat. Serum chemistry, epididymal sperm parameters and histological examination of liver, kidney and brain were assessed after twelve consecutive day’s oral administration of N. oleander. The extracts of R1, R2, L1 and L2 induced no treatment-related adverse effects with regard to general behaviors, hematological, serum chemistry, epididymal sperm parameters and histological profiles of liver, kidney and brain. However, the higher doses (R3, L3) led to, diarrhea, weakness, anorexia, frequent urination, and nasal hemorrhage, with no mortality. The hematological data revealed a significant increase in the levels of hematocrit and platelets in both L3 and R3 compared to the control. However, these two extracts have not affected the level of RBC, hemoglobin, WBC, and lymphocytes, while the L3 has reduced the concentration of glucose and increased that of urea. However, triglycerides, total cholesterol, alanine aminotransferease, albumin, conjugated bilirubin, potassium and calcium levels of L3 and R3 were not statistically significant compared to the control. Simultaneously bilirubin concentration was increased significantly in L3 and R3. There were no significant differences in epididymal sperm analysis when compared to the control. Adverse histological changes were observed in both liver and kidney as well as in the brain. To conclude, N. oleander extracts have disturbed the levels of certain vital variables in rats at higher dose, in which caution should be taken during the use of this plant.

Original Research Article

LETHALITY AND ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF SEA HARE (Dolabella auricularia) INK AGAINST THE FISH PATHOGENS

FABIO C. RUAZA JR.

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 51-57

This study determined the potential of sea hare’s (Dolabella auricularia) ink as a microbial agent in fish pathogens. The output of this study provides additional information to replace the expensive and hazardous antibiotics that are already being applied in aquaculture. Six (6) fish pathogens were tested for antimicrobial assays. The results revealed that all of the six (6) pathogens undergo growth inhibition in different concentrations. The Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Vibrio cholera, and Staphylococcus epidermidis showed maximum activity (very active) against the Salmonella sp. and Proteus vulgaris with "partially active" observation. For the toxicity analysis for nauplii, the LC50 value is 529.12, indicating that the sea hare’s ink is moderately toxic. This is to recommend testing its bioactive secondary metabolites with the possibility of use in the enhancement of new pharmaceutical agents against aquaculture disease. A better understanding of its ink could lead us to the development of new therapeutics.

Original Research Article

DIVERSITY OF ANT FAUNA IN 30 KM RADIUS OF KUDANKULAM NUCLEAR POWER PLANT AREA, TAMIL NADU, INDIA

P. KUMAR, A. G. MURUGESAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 58-65

A detailed study on the ground dwelling ant diversity was carried around 30 km radius of Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant area, Tamil Nadu, India during 2011-2012. Pit-fall trap, bait trap and hand-picking methods were used to collect ants from core Zone, buffer Zone I and Buffer zone II and three habitat (sandy area, garden area and plain area), in a sampling sites. A total of 33 species, 18 genera, and 5 subfamilies of ants were recorded. The Formicinae were the most common, with 7 genera and 15 species, followed by the Myrmicinae (6 genera and 10 species), the Ponerinae (4 genera and 5 species) and the Pseudomyrmecinae was represented by only 1 Genera species and 3 species. The six most species rich genera were Camponotus, Paratrechina, Monomorium, Tetraponera, Pheidole and Leptogenys. Higher species abundance is due to the habitat heterogeneity is an important factor to determine the species distribution in the study area. Conservationists should take consider to conserve the ant fauna diversity for there are many direct and indirect contribution on earth.

Original Research Article

CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION of Foeniculum vulgare MILL ESSENTIAL OIL COMPOSITION AND ITS TOXICOLOGICAL EFFECTS AGAINST MOSQUITO: Aedes caspius (PALLAS, 1771) SPECIES

BESMA SAFA KEFFOUS, LYNDA AISSAOUI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 66-73

In this study, the essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Umbelliferae: Apiaceae) was extracted by hydro-distillation and subsequently, its chemical composition was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and the profile was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS). Then, its larvicidal potential was evaluated against the larvae of Aedes caspius (Pallas, 1771). Using the CPG-MS analyses fourteen volatile compounds representing 99.22% of the essential oil were identified; namely are: Camphor (38.2%), Fenchone (28.24%) and o-Cymene (11.44%) which were predominant in the EO of F.vulgare. The toxicity of the EO was evaluated, after 24h of exposure time, against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes caspius and the sublethal and lethal concentrations, LC25, LC50 and LC90 values were estimated with their confidence limits and their values are 27.65, 37.76 and 70.40 µl respectively. The obtained bioassay results showed that F. vulgare EO exhibited a toxic effect against Ae. caspius larvae with a dose-response relationship. Based on the results of the toxicity of F. vulgare EO, it can be concluded that, the present aromatic plant species showed a significant toxicological effect and could be used as a promising alternative for the mosquito control. This result opens interesting perspectives for its application in the production of a new source of various larvicidal active compounds for controlling mosquito vectors.

Original Research Article

DIVERSITY AND THREATS OF MEDIUM AND LARGE-SIZED MAMMALS IN AMORO FOREST, WEST GOJJAM ZONE, AMHARA ETHIOPIA

BELAYNEH AYECHEW, DAGNACHEW MULLU, ABRAHAM TOLCHA, BHARATHI KARRI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 84-93

The objective of this study was to assess the species composition and relative abundance and to assess major threats of medium and large-sized mammals in Amoro Forest. Line transects surveying and indirect surveys method (including fresh tracks, scats, hair, spines, and burrows) were used to survey mammalian diversity. A survey was conducted in the early morning from 6:00 to 10:00 and late afternoon from 16:00 to 19:00. Key interviews and direct site observationswere carried out to assess the major threat of mammals in the study area. A total of 12 species of medium and large-sized mammals belonging to six orders and eight families were recorded. Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops), and Olive baboon (Papio anubis) were among the medium-sized mammals while, Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) were among the large-sized mammals observed in the study area. Shannon–Wiener Index values were low (H′ = 1.666) whereas, the Simpson's index (1-D) of diversity showed the highest species diversity (0.761) in the study area. Species richness and evenness varied from habitat to habitat in the Amoro forest. Land degradation and different anthropogenic activities such as; illegal logging of trees, overgrazing, agricultural activities, and human-wildlife conflicts were the foremost observed threats to the mammals in the study area. Community participation and awareness creation are very important to limit the impact of anthropogenic activities threatening wildlife.

Review Article

STATUS OF HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN MAJOR RIVERS OF KERALA, SOUTH INDIA – A REVIEW

SOJOMON MATHEW, R. RADHIKA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 23-31

In the past few years, rapid urbanization and industrialization have led to an enormous increase in the amount of industrial waste generated, including heavy metals. Metal contaminants are usually found in a variety of sources, including soils, sediments and water. Rivers are the major source of fresh water for drinking, domestic needs, irrigation, industries etc. Kerala is home to 44 rivers, most of which are now polluted to a great extent due to anthropogenic activities. This manuscript reviews the research work on the heavy metal status of 10 rivers in Kerala. The levels of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) etc. are increasing substantially in rivers of  Kerala. Heavy metals cause irrevocable damage to the biota, when they are transferred from water bodies to the food chain via assimilation, bioaccumulation and biomethylation processes.

Review Article

PRESENT STATUS, PROSPECTS AND CONSERVATION OF HILSA, Tenualosa ilisha (CLUPEIFORMES: CLUPEIDAE) FISHERY IN BANGLADESH

MD. ASADUJJAMAN, M. AMINUR RAHMAN, SHOUMIK MOJUMDAR, SELINA YEASMINE, MD. BARKOT HASAN, KASI MARIMUTHU

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21, Page 74-83

Belonging to the family Clupeidae, hilsa shad Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) is an important fish species in the South and Southeast Asia, especially in Bangladesh. Due to its unique nature, the fish has gained national and international demands for its nutritional values, taste qualities, special aroma and high delicacy, and provides livelihoods to the millions of fishers directly or indirectly along the coastal and riverine stretches in its range of natural distribution. It is considered as the national and most important commercial fish species of Bangladesh and contributes significantly to the national economy. In this study, an attempt is made in evaluating the data currently available on hilsa to determine the impact of the current management approaches and improvement strategies of this important fishery. Hilsa is found primarily in marine and estuarine environments, but it has been declining gradually over the last 30 years, reaching a low point in 1991-1992 and continuing until 2002-2003. Recognizing the declining trend of hilsa, the government took action to increase production by implementing regulations on jatka (juvenile) catch and restrictions on brood hilsa catch during the breeding season. As a result, total hilsa catch increased from 2.55 million MT (metric ton) in 2003-04 to 3.94 million MT in 2015-2016. Under the Protection and Conservation of Fish Act of 1950, Hilsa production peaked in 2016-2017, with a total of 4.96 lakh metric tons. Hilsa management techniques contribute 12.9% of all fish produced, while in Bangladesh, the rate of increase in hilsa production is 25.69%. The annual increase of total hilsa production climbed from 3.5% to 9.0% after 2015 as a result of the government's general management activities, payments for ecosystem service (PES) and the environmental management strategies, resulting in annual total hilsa production of 5.50 lakh MT in 2019–2020. A number of recommendations for effective management of the hilsa fisheries that might be implemented into the national policy are elicited in order to improve the situation because the current hilsa management plan has an impact on the conservation of this important fishery to a greater extent in commensurate with its national and international demands.

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