DIVERSITY AND THREATS OF MEDIUM AND LARGE-SIZED MAMMALS IN AMORO FOREST, WEST GOJJAM ZONE, AMHARA ETHIOPIA
UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 43, Issue 21,
The objective of this study was to assess the species composition and relative abundance and to assess major threats of medium and large-sized mammals in Amoro Forest. Line transects surveying and indirect surveys method (including fresh tracks, scats, hair, spines, and burrows) were used to survey mammalian diversity. A survey was conducted in the early morning from 6:00 to 10:00 and late afternoon from 16:00 to 19:00. Key interviews and direct site observationswere carried out to assess the major threat of mammals in the study area. A total of 12 species of medium and large-sized mammals belonging to six orders and eight families were recorded. Porcupine (Hystrix cristata), Vervet monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops), and Olive baboon (Papio anubis) were among the medium-sized mammals while, Spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), Leopard (Panthera pardus) and Common duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia) were among the large-sized mammals observed in the study area. Shannon–Wiener Index values were low (H′ = 1.666) whereas, the Simpson's index (1-D) of diversity showed the highest species diversity (0.761) in the study area. Species richness and evenness varied from habitat to habitat in the Amoro forest. Land degradation and different anthropogenic activities such as; illegal logging of trees, overgrazing, agricultural activities, and human-wildlife conflicts were the foremost observed threats to the mammals in the study area. Community participation and awareness creation are very important to limit the impact of anthropogenic activities threatening wildlife.
- Anthropogenic activity
- mammalian survey
How to Cite
Stanbury P. Looking at mammals. Heinemann. Books Ltd, London; 1972.
Ceballos G, Ehrlich PR. Globalmammal distributions, biodiversity hotspots, and conservation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006; 103(51):19374-9.
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0609334103, PMID 17164331.
Geleta M, Bekele A. Survey of medium and large-sized mammals in Wacha Protected Forest, Western Ethiopia. Sch J Agric Sci. 2016; 6(3):71-9.
Bantihun G, Bekele A. Diversity and habitat association of small mammals in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Zoological Research, 2015; 36(2): 88-94.
World Conservation Monitoring Centre. (WCMC,), biodiversity data sourcebook. Cambridge, UK: World Conservation Monitoring Centre; 2013.
Lavrenchenko AL, Bekele A. Diversity and conservation of Ethiopian mammals: what have we learned in 30 years? Ethiop J Biol Sci. 2017;16:1-20.
Bogoni JA, Graipel ME, Oliveira-Santos LGR, Cherem JJ, Giehl ELH, Peroni N. What would be the diversity patterns of medium‐ to large-bodied mammals if the fragmented Atlantic Forest was a large metacommunity? Biol Conserv. 2017;211:85-94.
Alves-Costa CP, Eterovick PC. Seed dispersal services by coatis (Nasua nasua, Procyon idae) and their redundancy with other frugivores in southeastern Brazilian. Acta Oecol. 2007;32(1):77-92.
Botelho ALM, Calouro AM, Borges LHM, Chaves WA. Large and medium‐sized mammals of the Humaitá Forest Reserve, Southwestern Amazonia, State of Acre, Brazil. Check List. 2012;8(6):1190-5.
Herrerías-Diego Y, Quesada M, Stoner KE, Lobo JA, Hernández-Flores Y, Sanchez Montoya G. Effect of forest fragmentation on fruit and seed predation of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia. Biol Conserv. 2008;141(1):241-8.
Boesch L, Mundry R, Kühl HS, Berger R. Wild mammals as economic goods and implications for their conservation. Ecol Soc. 2017;22(4):36.
IUCN. lUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland. ISBN 2-8317-0335-2, 1996
Vaughan AT, Ryan MJ, Czaplewaki N. Mammalogy. 4th ed. New York: Saunders College Publishing; 2000.
Cardillo M, Mace GM, Jones KE, Bielby J, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Sechrest W et al. Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Science press; 2005.
Keeping D, Pelletier R. Animal density and track counts: understanding the nature of observations based on animal movements. PLOS ONE. 2014;9(5):e96598.
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096598, PMID 24871490.
Legese K, Bekele A, Kiros S. A Survey of large and medium-sized mammals in Wabe forest fragments, Gurage zone, Ethiopia. Int J Avian & Wildlife Biol. 2019;4(2):32‒38.
Yalden D, W. Small mammals of the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia. Afr J Ecol. 1988;26:282-94.
Bekele A. A census of large mammals in the Harena forest Ethiopia. SINET Ethiop. J Sci. 1998;11: 27-39.
Woldegeorgis G, Wube T. A survey on mammals of the Yayu forest in Southwest Ethiopia. Ethiop J Sci. 2012;35:135-8.
Kasso M, Bekele A. Threats to mammals on fragmented habitats around Asella Town, Central Ethiopia. Int J Biodivers. 2014;2014:1-7. DOI: 10.1155/2014/903898.
Wale M, Kassie A, Mulualem G, Tesfahunegny W, Assefa A. Wildlife threats and their relative severity of eastern Ethiopia protected areas. Ecol Evol Biol. 2017;2(4):59-67. DOI: 10.11648/j.eeb.20170204.12.
Kasso M, Bekele A. Diversity, abundance, and distribution of mammals in fragmented remnant forests around Asella Town, Ethiopia. MAYFEB J Biol Med. 2017;1:1-12.
Getachew A, Mesele Y. Species composition and relative abundance of medium and large mammals in Mengaza communal forest, East Gojjam, Ethiopia. J Ecol Nat Environ. 2018;10(2):34-40.
Tefera M. Wildlife in Ethiopia: endemic large mammals. World J Zool. 2011; 6(2): 108-16.
Zamani P, Akhondi M, Mohammadabadi MR. Associations of Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat loci with predicted breeding values of body weight in Sheep. Small Rumin Res. 2015;132(3):123-7.
Mohammad AM, Bordbar F, Jensen J, Du M, Guo W. Key genes regulating skeletal muscle development and growth in farm animals. Animals (Basel). 2021;11(3): e835. DOI: 10.3390/ani11030835, PMID 33809500
Liyew B, Tamrat B, Sebsebe D. Woody species composition and structure of Amoro Forest in West Gojjam Zone, North Western Ethiopia. J. Ecol. Nat. 2018;10(4): 53-64,
Larsen TH, editor. Core standardized methods for rapid biological field assessment. Arlington, VA: Conservation International; 2016.
Worku Z, Girma Z. Large mammal diversity and endemism at Geremba Mountain fragment, Southern Ethiopia. Int J Ecol. 2020;2020:1-11.
Kingdon J. TheKingdon field guide to African mammals. London, UK: Academic Press; 1997.
Yirga S. Atibiwoch, Ethiopian wildlife and natural history society, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2008.
Sutherland JW. Ecological census techniques. 2nd ed. Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia; 2006.
Abu K, 2011. Population census and ecology of a rare gelada population (Thereopithecs gelada unnamed sub-sp.) in Indato, eastern Arsi, Ethiopia.
Shannon GE, Weaver W. The mathematical theory of communication. Chicago: University of Illinois Press; 1949.
Belete T, Melese M. Assessment of large mammals potential in Tululujia Wildlife Reserve, Southwestern Ethiopia. Int J Agric Life Sci. 2016;2(4):80-6.
Alves BG, Junior MO, Brites VC. Medium and large‐sized mammals of a fragment of cerrado in the Triângulo Mineiro region, Southeastern Brazil. Biosci J Uberlandia. 2014;30(3):863- 73.
Qufa CA, Bekele A. A preliminary survey of medium and large‐sized mammals from Lebu Natural Protected Forest, Southwest Showa, Ethiopia. Ecol Evol. 2019;9(21):12322-31.
DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5733, PMID 31832163.
Gonfa R, Gadisa T, Habtamu T. The diversity, abundance and Habitat associations of medium and large-sized mammals in Dati Wolel National Park, western Ethiopia. Int J Biodivers Conserv. 2015;7:112-8.
Bobo S, Kamgaing L, Ntumwel C. Species richness, spatial distributions, and densities of large- and medium-sized mammals in the northern periphery of Boumbabek National Park, southeastern Cameroon. Afr Study Monogr. 2014;49:91-114.
Abstract View: 165 times
PDF Download: 7 times