The present paper delineated diverse perceptivity of Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 657) and Aeromonas hydrophila (ATCC 646) to anti-listeria and anti-aeromonas compounds produced by different LAB (Lactic acid bacteria) like bacteria of fish. Fish intestine was searched for LAB in respect of their potential exploitation in fish biopreservation. Combative actions of ten LABs were assessed against the pathogenic and spoilage flora by agar well diffusion assay. LAB isolates were effectual in annihilation of indicator strains either with live cells and CFS (cell-free supernatant) or purely in the form of live cells. Antimicrobials were commenced to be functional against the both Gram positive and negative bacteria. Although varied modes of antagonism were reported. The antimicrobial action of neutralised and catalase treated cell free supernatant fluid was secured against Listeria even after heating at 90°C for 10 min. Inhibition against Listeria was mostly exerted by thermostable products. No anti-aeromonas thermostable products were appeared to be linked with antagonism. Few thermolabile products were efficient against Aeromonas. Majority of LAB like isolates with thermostable anti-listeria products found to be worthwhile against Aeromonas with cells only. Proteinaceous antimicrobials competent against Aeromonas as well as Listeria retrieved from two isolates may be more efficacious in fish preservation than the usage of those bacteriocins that perform predominantly against Gram positive bacteria. The study appeals in situ application of indigenous natural bacteriocins of Oreochromis niloticus [Linnaeus, 1758] for shelf life lengthening of fish.
The paper presents a systematic survey of helminth parasites found in Channa punctata from various districts (Nadia, North 24 Paraganas and Hooghly) in West Bengal. Mainly two species of parasites Euclinostomum heterostomumand Clinostomumcomplanatum have been recorded during the study. Data on their morphology and site of infection are provided. Morphological studies with light and scanning electron microscopic studies as well as molecular studies have revealed some additional morphological details. New features which were observed with scanning electron microscopy in Euclinostomum heterostomum were aspinous and smooth tegument surface, transversely folded areas, absence of spines on both the suckers and presence of crates. Dome shaped papillae with microridges and micropores on the surface of suckers was also observed. Similarly aspinous suckers with papillae on the floor of the ventral sucker was reported in Clinostomumcomplanatum. All the helminthes have been briefly described and illustrated. The study was done on economically important fishes to establish database of various types of infection caused by helminth parasites.
Productivity study is needed for the evaluation of the productivity of any aquatic ecosystems. The purpose of this study is to provide a baseline information regarding Hattikini Reservoir, Yadgir District, Karnataka, India for effective reservoir management. The study was carried out for a period of one year (February 2015 to January 2016) in each first week of the month using ‘light and dark bottle’ method. Results indicate that High productivity of Hattikuni reservoir favors better growth of zooplanktons and higher organisms in the reservoir.
The microbiological quality of ice cream during retail marketing mainly depends on the contamination during the product handling as well as efficiency and sanitary conditions during frozen storage. Many food poisoning cases associated with the consumption of ice creams have been reported. We studied the bacteriological profile of ice cream sold at retail outlets in Tiruchirappalli, a city in Tamilnadu State, India. Ice cream samples were collected from ice cream shops. Random sampling method was followed to collect different flavours of ice creams from the shops. A total of 10 samples were collected from two different localities, in sterile containers and transported to the laboratory and were processed immediately. High level coli form count, presence of Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp indicated faecal contamination of ice creams thereby suggesting possible risk of infection involved in the consumption of such food. Presence of Staphylococcus an enterotoxin producer may cause serious health problems. Among the isolates from samples tested, only Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus sp were significant potential pathogens. However, presence of other organisms (Bacillus) could be attributed to unhygienic conditions during preparation, handling and serving of ice creams. Based on the biochemical characterization, the isolate 1 was identified as Bacillus sp., the isolate 2 as E. coli sp., the isolate 3 as Staphylococcus sp. The molecular characterization revealed that the Bacillus sp, was identified as Bacillussubtilis, this was further submitted to NCBI Genbank to get Accession number. The Accession number was MH071337.1. Health education of the vendors and strict implementation of hygienic standards may help to reduce the contamination rates. The results suggested negligence such as poor sanitation during the preparation/or storage of ice cream. These included the observed dirty premises, used utensils and the use of bare hands in preparing the products.
The predatory efficiency of Nepa cinerea on Aedes albopictus larvae as prey was analysed based on various factors like prey instar and density, space size and vegetation density. The total number of prey intake at prey density number of 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 was 3.9 ±1.5, 10.6 ±1.5, 21.0 ±1.9, 42.6 ±4.2, and 79.6 ±6.5 respectively. For, space size, the total number of prey intake by the predator at different volumes, viz., 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20L was 41.8 ±1.4, 35.6 ±0.7, 28.8 ±1.4, 22.1 ± 0.7, and 14.0 ±1.0 respectively. While for vegetation density at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5g, the respective values for total number of prey intake was 39.5 ±1.7, 32.6 ±1.6, 29.5 ±1.1, 24.6 ±0.5, and 20.6 ±0.8. The present investigation gives an essential idea with respect to these factors which play a vital role in the variation of the predation efficiency of predators on their prey which are successful parameters in determination of concrete prey predator relationship.
The present investigation was undertaken to study the toxic effect of the insecticide Malathion (an Organo phosphate- pesticide) on biochemical parameters of the fresh water fish Labeo rohita (Hamilton). The fish were exposed to sub lethal concentration of the insecticide Malathion and the variations were observed on different parameters i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and ninhydrine positive substances (FAA) at different time intervals i.e. 24, 48, 72 and 96 hrs of Malathion exposure from different tissues of fish Labeo rohita i.e. gill, liver, intestine, muscle and brain. The results revealed that biochemical constituents i.e. proteins, carbohydrates and ninhydrine positive substances were decreased in all the tissues of L.rohita. The toxic nature of insecticide Malathion was found to be more after 48 hrs of exposure as highest % of decease was found in biochemical constituents of all the tissues.
Fresh water prawns are consumed at a high rate in Amravati district of Maharashtra mainly for their nutritional purposes (chiefly proteins) carbohydrates and lipids. The aim of this study is to evaluate the nutritional content of different prawn species and their fries (juvenile prawns) available in a frozen state from the Friday Fish market Amravati. Protein content was estimated by the Lowry’s Method (Lowery 1951). This study showed higher protein content (73.24±0.3538%) in the juvenile prawns as compared to their adult life stages (54.65±0.2400% Macrobrachium rosenbergii and 46.12±0.4691% Penaeus monodon). Carbohydrate content was found to be lesser in fries (1.91±0.03%) as compared to those of the adults (2.45±0.4003% in Macrobrachium rosenbergii and 4.3±0.2470% in Penaeus monodon). The results found in terms of the lipid content were quite inconsistant with the fries (juvenile) prawns showed lipid content (5.53±0.43%) and adults Macrobrachium rosenbergii (4.6±0.3637%) and Penaeus monodon (6.27±0.2463%). From the results we recommend the consumption of juvenile prawns over the adults, as they have good nutritional values with higher protein content than the adult prawns.
The current investigation was executed to know the water standards of Upper Lake, Bhopal. Upper Lake is extremely essential for fishery resources, drinking water supply, tourism and recreation, trap cultivation, wildlife habitat, research and education. The water samples were collected from the surface of the Upper Lake during the period of March 2019- February 2020 to cover summer, mansoon and winter seasons. The physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO2), total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness, turbidity, pH and temperature were examined by applying standard methods to evaluate the level of degradation in water quality. The result revelaed that there are small variation in physico-chemical parameters in Three different seasons of upper lake and most of the water parameters under beneficial condition important for survival of fish growth and health but not fovourable for human utilization.
Chicken feathers, consists of about 90% keratin (a recalcitrant protein) which cannot be easily hydrolyzed by common proteolytic enzymes. These feathers constitute a sizable waste disposable problem. Hence an eco-friendly alternative to this problem is mandatory. In the present investigation, the feather degrading microorganisms were isolated from feather dumped soil in Namakkal District. The preliminary study on the enrichment culture technique was performed in order to isolate the keratin degrading Bacillus species. The primary screening on skim milk and keratin agar revealed that only two Bacillus sp (FD1 and FD2) exhibited prominent growth and clear zone on agar plates. These efficient proteolytic bacteria were identified as Bacillus sp on the basis of phenotypic and physiological characteristics. The results were compared in accordance with the Bergey’s manual of Determinative Bacteriology. These two bacteria were identified as Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis. Further investigation, the degradation of chicken feathers was performed in feather minimal medium (pH 7.5) in which chicken feather acts as the sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Both the organisms effectively degraded the chicken feathers within 17 days. Both the isolates were assayed for its keratinolytic activity. The molecular weight of the keratinases for both Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis was done in SDS-PAGE. The effects of pH, temperature, carbon sources, nitrogen sources and metal ions / inhibitors on keratinase activity of both the organisms were studied. Analysis of HPLC or Monitoring the formation or disappearance of peaks obtained due to biodegradation of keratin was analyzed and recorded. Simultaneouslsy, pertaining to FTIR on keratin degradation indicated a pronounced difference between control and experimental treated feather samples. The application of keratinase enzymes obtained from Bacillus cereus and Bacillus licheniformis were studied. The above results indicated that both the Bacillussp produced appreciable levels of keratinase enzyme using feather as substrate and this could open new opportunities to reduce these recalcitrant feather waste and thereby reducing the pollution.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are small subpopulation of cells within tumours which possess characteristics associated with normal stem cell such as self-renewal and differentiation. CSCs play crucial role in cancer development by regulating the cancer cell survival, metastatic potential, disease relapse and poor prognosis. There are many cell markers like CD44, CD24, EpCAM, CD133, CXCR4, cMet, ALDH1 which can identify the CSCs.These cells are poorly regulated through cell cycle and also have metastatic ability as well as long life span. Chemotherapy is a part of successful cancer treatment. But the CSC’s multidrug resistance mechanism (MDR) like high expression of ABC transporter, histone lysine demethylase, suppression of apoptosis, progesterone receptor membrane component-1(PGRMC1) and increased expression of aldehydrogenase-1 are responsible to resist chemotherapy. Combined therapies targeting CSCs and their progenies may represent the most promising approach for the future treatment of cancer patients. This review summarizes the characterisation and identification of CSCs, different multidrug resistance mechanism of CSCs and the advanced types of treatment mechanism.