Termites play a key role in tropical and subtropical forest ecosystems as decomposers of the largest part of dead organic matter, playing a significant role in soil formation. Termites are polymorphic, eusocial insects, living in large communities of several hundred to millions of individuals, composed of reproductive forms together with numerous apterous sterile soldiers and workers there are about 2933 species of termites in 282 genera, 9 families that have been described so far in the world. They have widely dispersed as well as some temperate regions. India has high diversity with 295 species, 52 genera, 6 families. In Telangana 16 Species, 7 genera and 2 families of termites are already reported. The study was conducted in 5 places in Telangana state to investigate the termite’s species diversity. Termites were sampled with a standard 100×2 straight belt transect at 5 different places in Telangana state. 11 Species were collected from different parts of the plants, on dead wood, litter, dead tree stumps and leaf litter, logs and living trees.
The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important and destructive pests for date palms causing high economic losses. Several control methods have been applied to manage this pest. Intensive use of conventional insecticides to control RPW successfully minimized the weevil number, but they are still harmful for the environment as they cause pollution and damage other useful creatures. The present study aimed to find suitable, effective, and safe alternative control means. In addition, the impact of tested compounds on the enzymatic activity of the third instar larvae were assayed spectrophotometrically. Four commercial insecticides were applied against the 3rd instar larvae of RPW under laboratory conditions and the LC50 values were estimated. Larvae that survived treatment were collected 24h post treatment and were prepared for further enzymatic activities analysis. All experimentations were carried out at Wood and tree scavenger research department, Plant protection research institute, Agricultural research center. Results showed that Dr. Sure® was the most toxic compound according to low LC50 value obtained. In addition, results revealed that BIO-MAGIC® was the least toxic as the high LC50 value compared to the other compounds. In addition, results revealed significant impacts on the detoxifying enzymes in the 3rd instar larvae treated with LC50 of tested compounds as a defensive response against those compounds. These results reveal the suitability of the non-conventional insecticides to control the youngest larval instars effectively.
Belostomatid water bugs have been reported to be highly predaceous on mosquito larvae, and have been reported to kill and suck the content of the mosquito larvae. The present study aims at determining the predatory efficiency of Diplonychus rusticus as an efficient bioagent on Culex larvae. 275 adult water bugs were introduced into a pond containing 275 liters (±10%) of water. 27,500 Culex larvae were added. At the end of 6 hours and 24 hours the number of live larvae were collected and were noted. The results of this study proved the importance of water bug in the anti-mosquito management.
Membracids have received adequate attention for its taxonomic, habitual, behavioural and bioecological studies. In the present study, the behavioural aspects (feeding, communal life, resting, mimicry and colouration, oviposition, incubation, ecdysis, and parental care) of three membracids, viz., Leptocentrus taurus, Otinotus oneratus and Oxyrachistaranda on its host plants were studied by regular field observations at frequent intervals. The present study brought to light more salient behavioural features of membracids on its respective host plants. Hence, studies on other species of membracids exposed to different host plants may bring out additional behavioural aspects.
Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) is one of the most unavoidable challenges to be faced in the era of rapid development. The reason for the human and wildlife interaction is mainly the sharing of resources and the intervention of humans in the wildlife habitats which has resulted in habitat degradation. The present study was carried out in the arid landscape of Gujarat in order to understand the impact of crop damage by wildlife and to know the perception of locals towards the wildlife. One hundred and fifty (150) successful interviews were conducted from ten villages located on the fringe of the Greater Rann of Kachchh, in Banaskatha district using a structured questionnaire. The results shows that the mean area of land available per household is 10.5 ± 7.8 acre with the mean annual income of $ 460 ± 197. It was calculated that the respondents were at loss of $ 318.5, due to crop damage annually. Besides wildlife, water scarcity and natural calamities are other major constraints to the farmers of this area. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) is reported as the major wild animal responsible for crop damage, followed by blue bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus) and wildass (Equus hemionus khur). As a result, 70% of the respondents reported unwillingness towards coexistence. Farmers here are implementing both traditional and modern preventive measures to control the crop damage. The study revealed that those who have more land are more likely to lean towards modern preventive techniques which have no significant influence by the income of the farmers. The study suggests that fencing of farm and removal of pest species may be act as important measures to mitigate the conflicts in this region. However, provision of adequate and timely compensation by the authorities to the farmers for crop damage may help to generate the benevolence among the locals.
Amarkantak is a holy place according to the Hindu religion. It is the origin place of the Narmada River; local people call it “Maa Narmada” with great respect. The tropical deciduous forest of Amarkantak is the natural habitat of many birds; there are dams, agriculture fields, and grassland, which are the best spots for bird watching. During fieldwork, it has identified 85 species of birds belonging to 15 orders and 48 families in 6 different areas- Jamunadhadar, Kapilasangam, Sonmuda, Mai ki bagiya, Main mandir, and Chakrathirth, from 7 February 2021 to 12 March 2021. In this study morning and evening hours of each day has selected to identification and observation in different spots like dam, agriculture field, grassland, and forest area of sites. Jamunadhadar has the richest avian fauna diversity with 60 species, followed by Chakratirth having 54 species, then Sonmuda having 39 species and the least number of avian fauna recorded was 11 at Main Mandir. In Jamunadhaar; Dam, agriculture field, small ponds and grass- lands serve as a better habitat for different type of birds. Spotted creeper (Salpornis spilotus) sighted at Jamunadhader and Sonmuda. It was not recorded in previous year survey of Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve. Red naped Ibis (Pseudibis papillosa) is another bird which was not sighted in Amarkantak in previous survey, this bird in Jamunadhader and Chakratirth and Kapilasangam has seen in this study.
A male striped dolphin, was found entangled in discarded fishing net, off Tangassery, Coast, Kollam, Kerala, India (8°52′55″N76°34′26″E) by the Coastal Police Patrol to be identified later, as Stenella coeruleoalba. The trapped animal was in a state of fatigue ensued by the struggle to free itself from the ensnaring monofilament driftnet. Necropsy revealed that the stomach was devoid of solid food indicating prolonged starvation caused by the ensnared net. The incident highlights the devastating impact of abandoned fishing gear on our marine wildlife.
Leaf hopper (Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida.) causes heavy damage to grape vine (Vitis vinifera L.). The pest causes a limiting factor in the commercial production of grapes and many other crops in West Bengal. It was observed that spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 100, 120 and 140 a.i. g /ha, one dose of spinetoram 12% SC w/v (11.7%w/w), sulfoxaflor 24% w/v (21.8% w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5% SG and buprofezin 25% SC @ 30, 90, 11 and 250 a.i. g /ha, respectively were sprayed to compare their efficacy against leaf hopper. The spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha provided to be the best control of leaf hopper and spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. Same trends have also been reflected in yield of grapes. The tested insecticides were also found very safe to predators i.e.Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp. and Chrysoperla sp. of grapes insect-pests.
Microbial infections can prove fatal if not treated early besides causing serious economic losses for the aquaculture industry, hence aquaculture biosecurity problems addressing pathogens and diseases should also be given prime focus. Hence the present study was undertaken to analyse the presence of bacterial and fungal pathogens present in the water as well as in the instestinal tracts of the commonly occurring fishes of this system. For the present investigation, the samples were collected from the River Cauvery, Lower Anicut, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu. This river has a rich source of fish diversity with a variety of fishes like murrels, cat fish, carps and eels. The details of size and weight of the various fishes analysed in this study and the bacterial load in water as well as the fishes analysed. Water recorded the highest load of bacterial count. Among the various fishes, Channa punctatus recorded the highest bacterial load (38 x 103cfu/ml) followed by Puntius conchonius (36 x 103Cfu/ml) and Mystus vittatus (34 X 103Cfu/ml). The least amount of bacterial load was found in Catla catla (1.2 x 103Cfu/ml). A total of 13 fungal species could be identified in the water samples of the system Among the fishes, C. catla recorded the presence of 8 fungal species in their intestinal tract. On the other hand, C. punctatus recorded the presence of 9 fungal species while C. batrachus recorded the presence of 10 fungal species and M. vittatus and P. conchonius recorded the presence of 11 fungal species each. Thus, on the whole, water recorded maximum number of fungal species followed by M. vittatus and P. conchonius respectively. In M. vittatus, Rhizopus nigricans and Achlya hypogyna were not recorded while in P. conchonius, Alternaria alternata and Achlya prolifera were not recorded. C. catla and L. rohita recorded the least number of fungi (8 each). However in C. catla, A. fumigatus, Penicillium citrinum, R. nigricans, A. prolifera and A. hypogyna were not recorded while in L. rohita, A.fumigatus, A. alternata, Curvularia lunata, A. prolifera and Mycelia sterilia were not recorded. Thus, it appears that each fish had a specific fungi. This could probably be due to the body composition of each fish along with its immunity to resist certain fungi. However, a closer perusal reveals that 4 fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium oxysporium and Cladosporium herbarum) were common to all fish species. However, the degree of infection of varied from species to species and it appeared to be a reflection of the species composition of water.
Use of titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, in everyday products, of our life is quite common. It is used as food additive, in dairy products, tooth paste and also in various commercial products, such as paints, tiles, adhesives etc. For certain period of time its use was thought to be safe, but recent research, suggests that it has multiple deleterious implications upon human health. In this regard, the present study was attempted, to study the ecotoxic effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on animal physiology, with reference to liver tissue of Rattus norvegicus (Albino wister rats).Experimental animals, were subjected to three different terms of exposure such as(acute oral toxicity, 96 hrs, short term oral toxicity 28, days and sub chronic oral toxicity, 98 days)to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2). LD50, (lethal dose 50) was calculated as according to IARC 2006, and 100 nm sized particles, of TiO2was dissolved in distilled water and was fed as a single oral dose using a canula. As liver is considered as detoxifying organ, its enzymes, like Aspartate aminotransferase, (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin, are indicative of good liver functionality, they were evaluated in all the three terms of exposure. Results indicate, a significantly higher levels of all vital liver enzymes, suggesting a toxic effect of TiO2 upon liver. This study, clearly illustratesTiO2as a toxicant impacting the wellbeing of liver and therefore its indiscriminate in numerous products of everyday life, may be discouraged, or may be used with caution, if not totally stopped.
The grape thrips (Thrips palmi), has great importance that causing huge losses to commercial production of grapes (Vitis vinifera L.). It has become a serious pest of grape vine in West Bengal, India. The neonicotinoid insecticides viz. spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 100, 120 and 140 a.i. g /ha, spinetoram 12% SC w/v (11.7%w/w), sulfoxaflor 24% w/v (21.8% w/w) SC, emamectin benzoate 5% SG and buprofezin 25% SC @ 30, 90, 11 and 250 a.i. g /ha respectively were tested for their efficacy against thrips. Spinetoram 10% w/w + sulfoxaflor 30% w/w WG @ 140 g a.i./ha proved the most effective against thrips on grapes and it was at par with spinetoram 10% + sulfoxaflor 30% WG @ 120 g a.i./ha. Same trends have also been reflected in yield. The tested insecticides were also found safer to predators i.e.Menochilus sp., Syrphus sp. and Chrysoperla sp.
Use of pesticides such as bacticide in controlling mosquitoes at their breeding sites may have a negative effect on non-target species including the promising biological agents such as the belostomatid water bugs. In view of these considerations, the present investigation focuses on the extent of survival, tolerance and behaviour of the water bug Diplonychus rusticus in the fresh water medium tested with bacticide. The outcome of the results is discussed in the light of environmental stress on its population dynamics.
Recently, the fruits of Hylocereus undatus, known as dragon fruit, have received much attention from growers worldwide. However, there is little toxicological information regarding the safety of repeated exposure to these fruits. The present study evaluated the toxicity of H.undatus fruit flesh after acute administration in fish. In the acute toxicity study, Fingerling were not fed during the experimental period. Various concentrations (100, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000mg/L) of the test solutions were prepared from Hylocereus undatus stock solutions. A group of 10 laboratory acclimatized fingerling of a particular species having the same weight, size and age were introduced into each test concentration of Hylocereus undatus. After 24, 48, 72 and 96hrs monitor the mortality of fish. LC50 values were 48, 72 and 96hrs were more than 371.53mg/l, 3.46mg/l and 1.41mg/l observed respectively. The toxicity study which is essential for an adaptation of the traditional medicine was conducted to identify the tolerance limits of Hylocereus undatus fruit extract. According the obtained LD50 (446.68mg/L) values. These findings support the common practice of administration of Hylocereus undatus fruit as a medicinal decoction in herbal medicine.
The epidermal mucus layer on the skin of fish consists of many antimicrobial agents that offer a primary line of defense against invasive pathogens from the encompassing setting. The mucus contains many factors such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), lysozyme, lectins, complement, transferrin, interferon, pentraxins, natural antibodies, protease, etc that provide innate immunity. Many AMPs are reported in fishes together with hepcidins, defensins, cathelicidins, histone-derived peptides and piscidins having board antimicrobial spectrum. Antimicrobial peptides are extraordinarily enticing candidates as therapeutic agents because of their wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action that differs from that of small-molecule antibiotics. This review summarizes the potential use of mucus as in vivo antimicrobial agent.
One of the beneficial insects, silkworm (Bombyx mori): produces abundant silk in the form of a cocoon by ingesting mulberry leaves (Morus alba) in the course of the larval period. Factors such as humidity and temperature affect the physiology of insects. The farmers are also facing a huge problem because of the susceptibility of silkworms to different kinds of diseases which are causing alarming effects on their cocoon production. This paper is to discuss the control of entomopathogenic fungi by using various green nanoparticles (NPs) and see their effects on the larval growth, survivability, and mass production of silk. This paper discusses previous studies on the correlation between the environmental factors, green NPs, and the changes in the developmental cycle of silkworms. Environmental factors like temperature, humidity is also essential for the higher productivity of silk in sericulture. But due to these pathogenic fungi and the inadequate environmental conditions, immense economic losses occur in the sericulture industries.
The interaction of abiotic (temperature, humidity, rainfall, soil texture, geographical area, pollutants) and biotic (crop plants, weeds, insect pests, and humans) components determine the agro-ecosystem environment. Abiotic factors modulate the effect of biotic factors, but the most dangerous results are observed when biotic factors control abiotic factors. Human (biotic factor) activities like industrialization, uncontrolled urbanization, use of insecticide, pesticide and excessive burning of fossil fuels polluting air we breathe, water we drink and soil we sow. Above aforementioned activities are responsible for adverse effect on the environment of the area. Environmental pollution and other anthropogenic activities are major cause of climate change. The global planetary warning, altered rainfall pattern, precipitation, humidity effects multiple ecosystems. Climate changes effects global warming, environmental degradation, flora and fauna on earth. This article, enlighten farmers, horticulturist and researchers about climatic changes and their effects on insect diversity. As crop growers must contend with a serious threat from insect pests. Further research on climate change, seasonal variation, environmental contamination, and their impact on insect pests is an urgent need of the hour. The impact of seasonal changes on crop production, as mediated by changes in the populations of serious insect pests, must be carefully considered while developing and implementing pest management strategies. Such pest management strategies should be used to reduce crop loss while not compromising food quality or the environment.