The demand for blood and blood products has increased due to advances in medical science, Population growth and increased life expectancy. Due to this the aim of present study to determine the ABO blood group system of various community of Biraul block. Blood samples were collected by door to door survey. The frequencies of ABO blood group distribution indicated blood group B was predominant in three Castes i.e. Dusadh, Chamar and Pasi followed by O, A and AB respectively. While in Brahman and Mallah, blood group O was predominant followed B,A and AB respectively. This study helps us to know the exact distribution of blood group in various castes of Biraul block of Darbhanga.
The goal of this study was to compare and contrast the contents of proximate analysis, AST, ALT, LDH, and SDH in Labeo rohita gill, muscle, liver, and kidney. It is because of the high nutritional value of this fish as a source of protein in poor nations. The proximate study of L. rohita collected from various locations in Melarungunam, Cudalore district, Tamil Nadu found that hatchery L. rohita had the greatest protein (19.97%) and ash (1.76%) contents, whereas fat (0.84%), carbohydrate (5.39%), and dry matter (24.11%) contents. In the genus Labio rohita. The moisture content of the fish morphology was the greatest (81.42%). Maximum peroxidase and - amylase activity were measured during enzymatic analysis. The liver had the highest concentration of Cd metals, followed by kidney, muscle, and gills, in that order. When compared to other fish, rice bran and tapioca powder treated fish grew the fast.
A total of 760 snails of the genera Achatina, belonging to five species (Achatina achatina, Achatina belteata, Achatina degneri, Achatina fulica and Achatina marginata) were sampled between January and August 2021, from six communities located in six Local Government Areas (LGAs) in the Central Senatorial District, Cross River State. A.achatina was the most abundant species collected (32.89%) while A. degneri was the least collected (11.19%). A greater number of Achatina snails were collected in the wet season than in the dry season with no observed dominance of any of the species. Overall, 319 (42%) snails were infected with parasites. A. fulica had the highest prevalence of parasitic infection (50.50%) while A. marginata had the least parasitic infection (28%). Snail species sampled in Boki LGA had the highest prevalence of parasitic infection (56.25%), while Obubra LGA recorded the least prevalence (21.28%). Mean intensity of Angiostrongylus spp. in A. achatina was 4.780 (4.56 – 5.00; 95% CI), while Strongyloides spp. was 4.667 (4.11-5.22; 95%CI). Testing parasite species diversity in the snail species assessed using diversity indices, A. balteata recorded the highest values for Shannon-Wiener (1.653) and Margalef’s indices (1.995), and also for species dominance using the Simpson index (0.22). Public health education and provision of adequate toilet facilities are recommended for control of snail-borne parasites.
Background: Haricot bean is among the most important legumes grain in Ethiopia. The beans are good sources of protein, carbohydrates and mineral nutrients required for normal functioning of the body. Despite of its nutritional quality, it is poor digestible due to anti-nutritional factors present in the bean.
Methods: A total of 168 Sasso strain broiler chickens were used with an initial body weight of 39.65±2.15g for the trial. The chicks were randomly allotted into four treatments with 14 birds per replication. Haricot bean was soaked in water for five hours at ratio of 1 kilogram to 5 liters, and then cooked for an hour to reduce anti-nutritional factors. The treatment diets have contained the bean at proportion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% for T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively.
Results: T3 and T4 gave best performance (P≤0.05) in final body weight, slaughter weight, dressed carcass and eviscerated weight. A significant (P≤0.05) increase were observed in white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin and packed cell volume with increasing the rate of processed haricot bean in the treatment diets..
Conclusions: Therefore, an amalgamation of processed haricot beans in the broiler ration showed an optimistic result in the overall performance and immunity of broiler chickens.
The present investigation was carried out to study the variations of the physicochemical properties and primary nutrient parameters of Chandubi Lake, a tectonic lake. Water quality parameters such as water temperature, dissolved oxygen, free carbon dioxide, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, total carbon, bicarbonate ion and primary nutrients nitrate, orthophosphate and potassium were estimated. The study revealed low levels of total hardness and total alkalinity which is unique in the present investigation for the state of Assam. The presence of free carbon dioxide was recorded throughout the study period indicating the absence of carbonate alkalinity in all zones of Chandubi Lake. The investigation also revealed that the nutrient input in Chandubi Lake is of autochthonous origin. ANOVA (p = 0.05) revealed that there were significant difference in water quality parameters dissolved oxygen (DO), total carbon dioxide (CO2), total hardness (TH) and primary nutrient orthophosphate among the studied zones. The Pearson correlation (p = 0.05) showed that, water temperature has a negative correlation with DO (r = - 0.72), pH (r = - 0.64), dissolved oxygen (DO) has a negative correlation with free carbon dioxide (FCO2) (r = -0.91) and potassium (K) (r = - 0.86), while having a positive correlation with nitrate (NO3) (r = 0.71) and free carbon dioxide (FCO2) having a negative correlation with pH ( r = - 0.90). The overall water quality condition was found to be excellent, which was evident from WQI (< 25%).
Medicinal plants constitute an innumerable number of valuable therapeutic metabolites. Their easy availability and lesser side effects, make them a suitable choice for bioactive compounds against various infectious diseases. This study highlights the phytochemical profiles of Terminalia catappa extract and Rumex vesicarius whole plant extract. Extracts of the plant prepared using soxhlet and preliminary phytochemical analysis done following standard chemical methods. The identification of the phytochemical was further done using FTIR and GC-MS techniques. The results indicate the presence of a wide range of phytochemical constituents in ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, hexane, and acetone extracts of Terminalia catappa and Rumex vesicarius plant.
The Investigation of metabolites present in the ultrasonically treated kavuni rice are determined by the GC-MS/FID. In this study the karupu kavuni rice is ultrasonically treated at the temperature of 30⁰C &45⁰C and examined for the metabolites by using the GC-MS/FID more than twenty active compounds are identified and found at the different peak heights. At ultrasound treatment 30⁰C and 45⁰C, the highest peak was found at the 18.1min and metabolite found as cis-13-Octadecenoic acid. In untreated kavuni rice similar types of the compounds was identified. Hence this study proves that the ultrasound treatment on the rice, retains the metabolites, present in the kavuni rice.
Antioxidants present in the diet may have a significant effect on the prophylaxis and progression of various diseases associated with oxidative stress like cancer diabetes, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative. Berries and fungal species contain a range of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, including phenolic compounds. The objective of this study is to extract secondary metabolites from biologicals (wild berries and fungal species from the Himalaya region) and to conduct the preliminary phytochemical screening, total flavonoid and phenolic contents assays of various solvent extracts.
In this study, wild species were collected from the Himalayan region and extracted with different solvents by Soxhlet extraction. Phytochemical screening was carried out using standard procedures, total flavonoid content was measured by the aluminum chloride colorimetric assay and total phenolic content was estimated spectrophotometrically by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Preliminary phytochemical screening reveals that except a few all extracts show the presence of alkaloids, tannin, carbohydrate, glycosides phenol, and flavonoid. Only Water, methanolic, and Chloroform extract of Rubus indicus (RIW, RIM, RIC) and water, methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (SNW and SNM) contains steroids. Saponins are found only in extracts of Solanum nigrum and Morchella esculenta. Water extract of Rubusarmeniacus, Solanum nigrum, Morchella esculenta and methanolic extract of Rubus indicus, Lycium barbarum (RAW, SNW, MEW, RIM, and LBM) shows higher content of flavonoid and phenol.
Methanolic extract of Lycium barbarum and Rubas armeniacus has the richest content of phenolics and flavonoids i.e. (102.16 mg GAE/g and 2.95 mg QE/g) respectively, on the contrary, hexane extract of Morchella esculenta and chloroform extract of Lycium arbarum was the least i.e. (6.64 mg GAE/g and 0.59 mg QE/g). All the extracts were not significantly different from one another (p > 0.05). It can be hypothesized that the high contents of phenolic compounds of these sample extracts indicated that these compounds contribute to the antioxidant activity and can be regarded as promising plant species for natural sources of radical scavenging activity with potential value for the treatment of many life-threatening diseases.
Over the last century there has been an alarming increase in the number and diversity of epizootic diseases. Pathogens associated with these diseases may be bacterial, viral or parasitic and can spread by direct contact, food, water and/or environment. Zoonosis can lead to disturbances in the production and trade of animal products. Zoonosis comprise of many newly identified infectious diseases as well as many existing ones ex. Canine distemper virus (CDV). These newly identified and less studied viruses are constantly mutating and is a cause of concern for many virologists and veterinarians. Although, with advancement in science and technology, identification of new or previously unknown viruses has become precise and efficient, however, the need of the hour is to focus on identification of potential pathogenicity of the existing and new viruses for development of cure well in advance, to prevent an onset of endemic or a pandemic like ongoing COVID-19. Furthermore, exercising precautionary measures in addition to development of remedial measures will be like developing a double layered defense system as this will promote healthy practices in handling wild animals, maintaining hygiene in their shelter and routine health checkup of technicians working closely with these animals.
Indian mymarid genera is updated. Keys to diagnose all the known 10 generic groups and 39 mymarid genera (generic group wise) of India are furnished in accordance with the recent (2021) changes in classification of mymarids.