Original Research Article

In vivo SCREENING OF TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) IN BROILERS CHALLENGED WITH EIMERIAL INFECTION

YASMEENA JAN, SYED TANVEER, RAFIQ AHMAD SHAHARDAR, BILAL AHMAD PARA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 5-15

The present work was undertaken to evaluate the anticoccidial efficacy of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) in comparison to a reference drug Amprolium against experimentally induced Eimeria species infection in broiler chicken reared across the Kashmir Valley. Nevertheless rhizomes of Turmeric are effective alternatives to coccidiostats but their use has not been accurately recognized.  For this purpose, one day old broiler chicks were purchased from a local market and were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group A- Group D). All the groups except Group D were infected orally with 10000 viable sporulated oocysts of mixed Eimeria species. Group A was infected and treated with Turmeric powder at the dose rate of 5 g/L of drinking water, Group B was infected and treated with Amprolium powder at the dose rate of 1.25 g/L of drinking water, Group C (+ve control) was kept as infected and untreated group and Group D (-ve control) was kept as uninfected & untreated. Faecal samples were collected on day “0” before treatment and on 7th, 10th, 14th and 21st day after starting treatment. Both the treatments resulted in decreased clinical signs, lesion score and faecal Oocyst Per Gram (OPG) counts post-treatment as compared to pre-treatment. The results also showed that the chicks having diarrhea during the initial days of infection had normal faeces from 10th day after treatment and onwards. The maximum efficacy of Turmeric@5g/liter of drinking water was observed on day 21 as 99.07% which was comparable to the efficacy of a standard anticoccidial drug Amprolium on the same day as 99.26%, after treatment. Both groups (Turmeric and Amprolium treated) showed a significant difference of efficacy on day 7 with all other days (P<0.05). It was concluded that Turmeric was effective and showed efficacy comparable to a standard anticoccidial drug Amprolium in the treatment and control of coccidiosis.

Original Research Article

ATYID SHRIMPS OF JHARGRAM, PURBA MEDINIPUR AND PASCHIM MEDINIPUR DISTRICTS OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

PRITI RANJAN PAHARI, MITALI DAS, TANMAY BHATTACHARYA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 16-25

Findings of a survey conducted in three districts of West Bengal during September and October, 2020 revealed existence of 6 species of atyid shrimps viz., Caridina gracilirostris, Caridina gracilipes, Caridina kutchi, Caridina longirostris, Caridina temasek and Caridina williamsoni. An annotated list of these species with measurements and description is included. All except C. gracilirostris are reported for the first time from West Bengal and C. temasek is recorded for the first time from India. This raises the total number of species found in India to 33 and in West Bengal to 8.

Original Research Article

EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF KOTEPALLY LAKE WATER IN VIKARABAD DISTRICT OF TELANGANA STATE

S. RANI, A. V. RAJASHEKHAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 26-36

Water resources are equally important for natural ecosystem and human development. It is essential for agriculture, industry and human existence. Present work was designed to study the physicochemical parameters of kotepally lake, Vikarabad. The water samples from the surface were collected from the three sampling stations every months in polythene cans for a period of two years from June 2016 to May 2018. Water analysis carried out to know the physicochemical parameters like water temperature, pH, Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Chlorides, Dissolved oxygen, Total Hardness, Sulphates, Calcium, Phosphates, Magnesium, Nitrates, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Biological Oxygen Demand and Chemical Oxygen Demand. The values of physico chemical parameters were with in permissible limits of WHO and BIS. The results indicate that the Kotepallylake is Non- polluted andcan be used for domestic purpose, irrigation and fish culture.

Original Research Article

THE DIVERSITY OF BUTTERFLIES IN SOUTHERN PART OF THE WESTERN GHATS (PALANI HILLS)

J. DINESH RAJA, J. JAINUL YASMIN, A. MELBA PRIYADHARSHINI, A. SADIQ BUKHARI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 37-46

The present study has been done in the southern part of Western Ghats of Palani Hills in Tamilnadu. It was conferred as a global biodiversity hotspot that includes Kodaikanal Wildlife Sanctuary is to be proposed. We have studied the Diversity, Dominance and Evenness of butterflies in different habitats (forest area, crop area and river bank,) during the period of December 2018 to March 2019. A total number of 92 species, from 65 genera and 5 families were recorded. The diversity of species and abundance have recorded maximum in March-May and dropped it to the minimum in December 2018 - January 2019. Forest area habitats had greater species diversity, while the riverbank habitat had a greater number of butterflies; crop area had the least diversity of individuals and abundance present in the studied habitats. We have also been recorded the endemism and the flight period of some of the butterflies and their distribution range within the habitats with their nectar source plants. Analyses were also done to emphasize the importance of butterfly individuals and their need for conservation.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF Artemisia pallens ON DIABETIC RATS CONSIDERING HAEMATOLOGICAL AND BLOOD SUGAR PARAMETERS

K. SAI PAVITHRA, JEYANTHI ANNADURAI, R. RAGUNATHAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 52-56

Artemisia species are extensively used for the management of diabetes in folklore medicine especially in the Asian continent. This study was designed to induce diabetes and also to investigate the effect of methanolic extracts of A. pallens on male albino rats. Diabetes was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin with nicotinamide (60 mg/kg b.w.). Artemisia extracts maintained the blood cell count in the treated rat system than the treated diabetic rats. Similarly, the blood and urine sugar levels also significantly changed compared to the control. Significant changes in the blood of the Artemisia treated rats represented the enhanced bone marrow production which resulted in resolution in metabolism along with regulation of heamatocytes and blood sugar levels. In addition, the urine sugar level was also significantly reduced. The current study demonstrated revealed the improved haematopoietic mechanism and anti-diabetic effects of methanolic extracts of A. pallens on male albino rats.

Original Research Article

ASSESSMENT OF CRUDE EXTRACT YIELD AND In-vitro ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF SEA STAR FROM PHILIPPINES

ANGELO MARK P. WALAG, RAVINDRA N. KHARWAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 68-76

Echinoderms have been reported recently to contain many bioactive compounds with interesting pharmaceutical activities. Of the five classes of echinoderms, a higher number of new marine natural products were isolated from sea stars and sea cucumbers. The archipelagic nature of the Philippines allows it to support habitats of vast diversities of aquatic organisms, including sea stars. Still, a lot of these marine organisms remained unstudied in terms of their pharmacological and biological activities. Thus, this study aimed to determine the crude extract yield, antioxidant activity, and IC50 values of common sea stars in the Philippines. Standard methods were utilized to determine the crude extract yield, while DPPH radical scavenging activity was used to determine the antioxidant activities of aqueous, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts. In terms of crude extract yield, aqueous extract consistently had the highest yield. In terms of antioxidant activity, the aqueous extract had the highest IC50 values for A. planci and P. nodosus compared to the other solvents used. Overall, the aqueous extract of A. planci had the highest antioxidant activity. It is recommended that further studies should be conducted in isolating and elucidating the antioxidant compounds from these species.

Original Research Article

EFFECT OF Carica papaya LEAF SUSPENSION ON CARBOPLATIN INDUCED BLOOD CELLS TOXICITY IN MICE

. SENTHILKUMARAN, . SANTHANALAKSHMI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 77-82

Thrombocytopaenia is defined as persistent decrease in the number of blood platelets that may be associated with hemorrhagic tenderness. There are no effective methods to treat thrombocytopenia once it occurs. Transfusions, growth factor injections and bone marrow transplant have their limitations. So there is increased need for research of drugs that could prevent and treat thrombocytopenia. The objective the study to determine the effect of different doses of male and female papaya leaf juice on prevention of carboplatin induced thrombocytopenia in mice The Carica papaya leaf suspension was studied for its activity to prevent chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia in mice. The results were compared using student t-test for individual samples. The activity of papaya leaf suspension was found to prevent thrombocytopenia was evaluated by measuring the blood platelet count daily from day1 to day17. Palm oil is used as a control as a study conducted and was showed there was no any significant difference0 in the thrombocyte count between nonnal saline and palm oil.  The above findings suggested that Carica papaya leaf suspension significantly prevents the thrombocytopenia induced by chemotherapy mice.

Original Research Article

EFFECTS OF Carica papaya LEAF EXTRACT SUSPENSION ON CARBOPLATIN INDUCED THROMBOCYTOPENIA IN MICE

. SENTHILKUMARAN, M. MANI, G. JAYALAKSHMI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 83-87

Plants and plant-based products have been active to stop numerous human diseases since ancient times. Carica papaya Linn. From the Caricaseae family, is perennial usually unbranched, smooth stem and long-stalked leaves. Papaya leaf extract (PLE) has a therapeutic role in the action of numerous human diseases due to the existence of rich source of phytochemicals, minerals and vitamins. From this study it was found that Carica papaya leaf significantly increases the thrombocyte count and prevents chemotherapy induced thrombocytopenia. The effect starts immediately from day2. But the effect on neutrophil count is not conclusive as the count increased only on the last four days of observation. In future if developed as an anti-cancer drug, it can be either given alone without any complication of thrombocytopenia or can be combined with other anticancer drugs preventing thrombocytopenia induced by them.  However the substances responsible for this action have to be identified and isolated. There is also need for further studies on experimental animals and human beings that may provide definitive and sure data regarding its usefulness, exact mode of action and therapeutic utilization. Once the exact mode of action is known it can be tried in other thrombocytopenic conditions and also will be a new generation of drugs in the treatment of cancer.

Original Research Article

SEASONAL DIVERSITY AND ABUNDANCE OF INSECT PESTS IN Bt AND NON-Bt COTTON FIELDS

MODALA MALLESH, CH. SRAVANTHY

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 88-96

The field study was conducted to investigate ‘Seasonal diversity and abundance of insect pests in Bt and non-Bt cotton fields at Palem village of Nalgonda district, Telangana state, India. Sample was done every month from July 2019 to January 2020 in the morning. Sweep net and hand-picking method was used for the collection of insect pests on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants. During 2019-2020 cotton seasons, a total of 5541 arthropod individuals in Bt cotton, 6822 arthropod individuals in non-Bt cotton fields were collected. More arthropod individuals were collected in non-Bt cotton than Bt cotton. During study period, a total 25 insect pests on Bt cotton and 38 insect pests on non-Bt cotton were recorded and which belonged to 20 different insect families and 3 different orders. We found 3- species of insect pests in July, 9 species in August, 12- species in September, 19-species in October, 19-species in November, 10-species in December and 7-species in January on Bt cotton and 4- species in July, 10 species in August, 12- species in September, 29-species in October, 28-species in November, 14-species in December and 9-species in January on non-Bt cotton fields during the study period. We found lower number of pests in Bt cotton in comparison to non-Bt cotton fields. Seasonal abundance was lower in both Bt and non-Bt crops in month of July-2019 gradually increased from July-2019 to November-2019, thereafter decreased from December-2019 to January-2020 on both Bt cotton and non-Bt cotton fields. We noticed that the low differences in abundance of insect pests between Bt and non-Bt cotton fields. Ecological indexes were calculated for analysis of community structure of insect pests.

Original Research Article

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA ON THE LEVEL OF STRESS AMONG NURSING STUDENTS IN SELECTED COLLEGE OF NURSING, VELLORE

A. R. BHARATH

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 97-103

Stress is described by susceptibility to numerous chronic health complications. As per key inhibition, efforts are directed to promoting health by reassuring patients to adapt healthy lifestyles. The design adopted for this study was a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test control group design to evaluate the effectiveness of pranayama to reduce stress of nursing students. The practice of yoga techniques is a power tool to keep the elderly in good psychophysical condition. Pranayama is basically a series of exercises that aims to bring more oxygen to the blood and the brain. There was no significant association between the post-test levels of stress among Pranayama is an art and has techniques to make the respiratory organs to expand, intentionally, move, rhythmically which provides a deep relaxation to the body and mind, improves concentration, relieves stress depression, and strengthens the respiratory system nervous system.

Original Research Article

A STUDY ON PLASMID MEDIATED AmpC BETA-LACTAMASE AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN AMONG ESCHERICHIA COLI AND Klebsiella Species

M. DIVYA RANI, CHITRALEKHA SAIKUMAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 104-116

This is a descriptive study done during the period of May 2013 to August2014 at Department of Microbiology, Bharath Institute of Higher Education and Research. A total of 100 isolates (E. coli n=57 and Klebsiella spp. n=43) were processed in the present study. Out of these, 41(41%) were from urine sample, followed by17 (17%) pus samples, 25(25%) sputum samples, 9(9%) Blood samples, 6(6%) stool samples and 2(2%) samples were from pleural fluid and Ascitic fluid each. Out of these 100 isolates 33 strains were from ICU, 44strains were from wards and 23 strains were from outpatients. ESBL production was seen in 41(41%) strains among the 100 isolates, by CLSI decried criteria. The prevalence of Amp C beta-lactamases in found tube 16% by multiplex PCR. The most predominant geneis CIT followed by DHA. The rate of Amp C beta-lactamas production was found to relatively high in hospitalized patients. In the present study all the Amp ‘·; ta-lactamase showed 100% susceptibility to Meropenem both in E. coli and Klebsiellas pp. All Amp C producers were resistant to cephalosporins except cefepime, which is a fourth generation cephalosporin.

Original Research Article

A STUDY ON ANALGESIC EFFECT OF Syzygium aromaticum IN ALBINO RATS USING HOT PLATE METHOD

SENTHIL KUMAR, . MAHESWARI, G. JAYALAKSHMI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 133-137

The clove buds of Syzygium aromaticum were studied for analgesic activity on Albino rats. The results were compared with those of control by student t-test for individual samples; ANOVA followed by Post hoc multiple comparisons (LSD). The pain was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of 5% formalin in the paw of albino rats according to the method and by hot plate method and the analgesic activity of Syzygium aromaticum powder was studied based on the above two models. Pethidine and Ketorolac are the drugs used in this study to compare with Syzygium aromaticum powder. Syzygium aromaticum powder has shown a significant effect when compared with both drugs.

Original Research Article

ICHTHYOFAUNAL DIVERSITY OF KINNERASANI RESERVOIR IN BHADRADRI KOTHAGUDEM DISTRICT OF TELANGANA, INDIA

G. SRINIVAS KUMAR, G. RAJENDAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 138-149

The Ichthyofaunal diversity of Kinnerasani reservoir in Telangana state was observed in the present study. Sixty-one fish species belong to 8 orders, 19 families and 40 genera were observed.  Of those, order Cypriniformes was dominant with 24 species which contributed to 39.34% of the total species, followed by Perciformes with 14 (22.95%), Siluriformes 13 (21.31%), Channiformes 04 (6.55%), Beloniformes and Anguilliformes with 02 (3.27%), Osteoglossiformes and Cyprinodontiformes with 01 species each (1.64%). Out of the reported 19 families Perciformes contributed by 06 (31.57%) families and Siluriformes with 05 (26.31%). The present communication provides baseline data of fish species and discusses the diversity indexes and conservation status.

Original Research Article

ENRICHMENT OF Artemia franciscana AND TOXICITY ANALYSIS OF CHLORPYRIFOS ON ENRICHED ARTEMIA

K. SARAVANA KUMAR, J. JOONU

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 162-167

The present study highlights the importance of Artemia as a common fish feed worldwide The Artemia cyst were collected, decapsulated, incubated for harvesting, and washed and separated. The Artemia was fed with two different formulations of feed and the growth of Artemia were observed. The feed supplemented with groundnut oil cake and wheat flour established a faster growth rate than the feed supplemented with spirulina powder and rice bran. Aminoacid analysis is carried out by HPLC in following two types of Artemia samples. The cytotoxicity test was performed using chlorpyrifos pesticide. Enriched Artemia is tested for chlorpyrifos toxicity by giving different concentrations (25, 50,100, 200, 300) in µl for 5 hours. LC50 value of the chlorpyrifos from the given concentration on enriched Artemia is = 187.6 µg/ml. Adult enriched Artemia cannot tolerate the toxicity for even a few hours. The observations proved that adult enriched Artemia was easily susceptible to various toxic agents such as pesticides, parasites, and other microbes. Enriched Artemia nauplii are very much less sensitive to the pesticide when compared with adult Artemia. It can tolerate the toxic over the adult Artemia. As a result, enriched nauplii are the best food source for freshwater and marine fishes and other crustaceans.

Original Research Article

BIOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF DIFFERENT BREEDS OF Bombyx mori ANTAGONIZED WITH FUNGAL PATHOGEN Beauveria bassiana

GANTA SAVITHRI, M. SHEEBA PRAVEENA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 168-177

The silkworm, Bombyx mori has been well exploited as a model for the wide range of research investigations and a typical representative of lepidopteran insects. The silkworm is a primary producer of mulberry silk with a great commercial significance. Silkworms are very delicate and susceptible to various pathogenic - microbial organisms that affect the productive parameters of the silk cocoons. The degree of susceptibility varied from breed to breed. Biochemical traits indicate the physiological status of an organism and may direct the prospect of using biochemical markers to assess the health condition of the silkworm breeds. Further Beauveria bassiana the fungal pathogen confined to haemolymph till the death of the host organism. Therefore, appropriate understanding of biochemical interactions and physiological manipulations in the haemolymph between host and pathogen in response to infection is obligatory before stepping into other research areas like immunology and management of disease. With this backdrop, dynamics of vital macro-molecules were examined in the haemolymph of 5th instar under stress conditions caused by fungal pathogen Beauveria bassiana in three popular silkworm breeds viz., bivoltine double hybrid (CSR 2 x CSR 27) x (CSR 6 x CSR 26), crossbreed (PM × CSR2) and bivoltine single hybrid (CSR2 X CSR4). Significant variations were noticed in three major biomolecules chosen for the study such as total carbohydrates, proteins and Lipids in three different breeds, the encouraging results were recorded in bivoltine double hybrid followed by crossbreed and bivoltine single hybrid. Results of the study revealed that bivoltine double hybrid is superior compared to crossbreed and bivoltine single hybrid in all the biochemical parameters evaluated. The outcome of the study can be used for screening and to differentiate the silkworm breeds.

Original Research Article

GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THERAPEUTICALLY ACTIVE ANTIPROLIFERATIVE POLYPHENOLIC FRACTIONS EXTRACTED FROM Rubus ellipticus ON HUMAN CERVICAL CANCER CELLS (HeLa)

OSHIN CHAUHAN, S. B. SHARMA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 178-194

R. ellipticus is high in natural antioxidants, which aid in reducing oxidative stress and preventing degenerative diseases including cancer and diabetes. Epigenetic modulation of tumor suppressor genes can reduce protein expression of DNMT and HDAC isomers and reverse the tumorgenicity. Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol, and water were used in phytochemical extraction process, which were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Phenols, Flavonoids, Tannins, and Carbohydrates are present in different levels in all extracts. Water and methanolic extracts of R. ellipticus had greatest phenolic content of 32.23 mg/gm and 8.6 mg/gm, respectively. Methanolic and water extracts of R. ellipticus had highest flavonoid concentration of 3.30 mg/gm and 2.86 mg/gm, respectively. Methanolic extract of R. ellipticus has highest antioxidant capacity, as measured by ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP tests, followed by the water extract for ABTS and FRAP value. Total flavonoid content (mg/gm) and ABTS (CEAC mg/ml) had a significant relationship. For HPLC analysis, a % methanolic fraction of REW with 29.49 mg/g TPC and a yield of 91.4% was used. The primary three phenolic components of REW70 fraction, quercetin, benzoic acid, and phenylacetic acid, were found to have quantities of 447 µg/ml, 143 µg/ml, and 103.3 µg/ml, respectively, according to HPLC analysis. Only two compounds in fractions REW70F3 and REW70F5, namely benzoic acid and quercetin, showed anticancer activity against HeLa cancer cells, according to cell viability assays for the three main compounds with fraction REW70F3, REW70F4, and REW70F5. REW70F3 and REW70F5 have IC50 values of 77.05083 and 137 µg/ml, respectively. The overexpression of DNMT1 and HDAC3 in REW70F3 treated HeLa cells was calculated by gene expression analysis in treated HeLa tumor cells, but only HDAC3 overexpression was estimated in REW70F5 compound. In case of REW70F5, DNMT1 was discovered to be underexpressed. In all samples, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, HDAC1 and HDAC2 genes were found to be underexpressed.

Original Research Article

PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF KUDUVAIYAR ESTUARINE WATER OF SOUTH EAST COAST OF INDIA

B. GIJILET MARY, M. SUKUMARAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 195-202

A study has been undertaken to enlighten the water quality parameters of coastal water of Kuduvaiyar estuary and Kuduvaiyar east coast was selected as the reference site. The concentration of water quality parameters like pH, DO, Ammonium,Nitrate, BOD, Sodium, Chloride,Sulphate and Fluoride were done in the laboratory as per the standard methods compared with Fisheries and aquatic life standard value. The reason for choosing the coastal water level due to the continuous discharge of agricultural, domestic sewage and industrial effluent in the estuary. The present baseline information of the physicochemical properties of water would form a useful tool for further ecological assessment and monitoring of Kuduvaiyar estuarine water of South East coast of India. The conclusion of the present study is that physico-chemical parameters influence the Ichthyofaunal diversity and Kuduvaiyar estuary are not extremely pollutant but at the same time there is a possibility of gradual addition of pollutants in due course. It reveals that the estuarine environment is largely influenced by the annual cycle of monsoon.

Original Research Article

CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SCALE MORPHOLOGY AND SALIENT FEATURES OF THE SELECTED MARINE FISHES

P. S. SREEJA DEVI, NIKHILA LEEMON, SURYA SURESH, SANGEETHA S KUMAR, SREEJITH PARAMESWARA PANICKER

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 203-212

Scales are the remarkable structures on the fish body and it provides structural support. The scale morphology has proved to be a useful tool in fish classification the number of rows, and the scale types are considered to identify species. In this study, fourteen marine fishes were collected and compared to identify the scales' morphological differences and features in the three locations. In each fish, scales are collected from three different areas on its body; three regions are head region, caudal region, and median region. They were analyzed to find the morphological differences using stereo and compound microscopes. Mainly two types of scales are seen from the fishes that are cycloid and ctenoid scales. They are together known as elasmoid scales. Scale size is different in different scales from the same fish, and also the scales differ according to the fish age The scales can be used to study the age of fish by analyzing its annuli. The shape of scales is mainly oval, round, a rectangular. The fishes studies belong to two families such as Sciaenidae, and Cynoglossidae, and the rest belong to nine different families such as Sphyraenidae, Psettodidae, Nemipteridae, Synodontidae, Sillaginidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Epinephelidae, and Mugilidae. Morphological differences were identified on the scales of fishes within the same family Sciaenidae, and Cynoglossidae. This study found that scale parameters are considered to be an essential parameter to study fish taxonomy.

Original Research Article

ACUTE TOXICITY STUDIES OF CADMIUM ON CRAB Sesarma quadratum (Decapoda)

B. GIJILET MARY, M. SUKUMARAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 232-236

An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments and are an example of an ecotone.. Since many species of crustaceans inhabit estuaries, numerous studies have aimed at examining the bioaccumulation and effects of various toxicants in these animals. Heavy metals can accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms and cause a range of hazardous effects to all organisms through biomagnifications. The aimed of this study was to investigate the acute toxicity effects of cadmium on the crab (Sesarma quadratum). Crab samples were exposed to different concentrations (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25µg/L) of cadmium for 96h and their cumulative mortality was calculated in 24 hours intervals. Results were analyzed by SPSS 20 to obtain a number of cumulative mortality and lethal.

Short Research Article

EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF SOYBEAN MEAL DIET ON GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF MAJOR CARP Catla catla

P. DHIRAVIDASELVI, R. RAVICHANDRAN

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 1-4

An experiment was conducted to determine the growth performance of Indian Major Carp Catla catla, fingerlings for period of 60 days. In the present study to investigate the effects of soy bean on growth performance and survival in common carp (Catla catla). Soybean was incorporated into diets at concentrations of 1%, 2%, or 3%. The control diet contained no supplement. Soybean at 3% produced the best and statistically significant (p<0.05) weight gain. In general, Soybean produced better growth than 1% and 2% supplementation. The present investigation shows that incorporation of soybean in diets for common carp results in increased growth rate. Soybean diet was most effective in stimulating fish growth.

Short Research Article

EVALUATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN AZOXYMETHANE-INDUCED COLON CANCEROUS FISCHER RATS

V. KAVITHA, B. BVIJAYALAKSHMI, J. NAVEENA LAVANYA LATHA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 150-161

Objective: To study the redox status of normal colon and aberrant crypts formed in azoxymethane induced colon cancerous fischer rats.

Methods: A total of 16 five-week-old male Fisher 344 rats (Rattus norvegicus), weighing approximately 90–100 grams were housed individually in plastic cages with wood-chip bedding. The animals were acclimatized for 1 week and fed with an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN-93G) diet ad libitum. Their protein oxidation, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants, glutathione (GSH), and antioxidative enzymes in serum were detected.

Results: The levels of protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation were significantly higher in the study group than in the control group (P<0.01). However, the mean serum level of MDA and conjugated diene was lower in the study group than in the control group (P<0.01). The activity of antioxidative enzymes was significantly decreased in the study group compared to control group (P<0.01).

Conclusion: Colorectal cancer is associated with oxidative stress, and assessment of oxidative stress and antioxidantsincorporation could be an important choice for the treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer.

Short Communication

STUDY OF TRIDAX LEAF EXTRACT ON CHICK EMBRYO VITELLINE BLOOD VESSELS

KISHOR DHANJI PENDHARKAR

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 47-51

A plant Tridax procumbens (Linn.)  is very commonly used as an herbal medicine to stop bleeding and in healing of wounds. In embryogenesis angiogenesis play an important role on embryonic development. The effect of leaf extract of Tridax procumbens is studied using the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay in vivo. The present work deals with angiogenesis, anti-angiogenesis and histological study of newly forming vitelline blood vessels. The histological study revealed that the thickening effect of endothelium and the tunica media of vitelline veins is due to leaf extract of Tridax procumbens.

Review Article

A REVIEW ON ANTICANCER SOURCES FROM AQUATIC ORGANISMS

J. APARNA, M. AMPILI

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 57-67

Now a days the prevalence of cancer is increasing in an alarming way. There are several treatment methods for the control of cancer cells including chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Chemotherapy, that uses chemicals for the inhibition of cancer growth and out-turn leads to several side effects to the normal cells. Naturally derived substances are getting more attention in cancer studies as a replacement of the chemicals or enhancers of chemicals used in chemotherapy. This review intends to gives a brief account on the recently found anticancer activity of aquatic organisms or compounds.

Review Article

IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR: AN OVERVIEW

DEBRAJ BISWAL

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 117-132

Anthropogenic activities in the recent years have caused much damage to the environment. This is probably being reflected in the climate change that the world is witnessing currently. Published reports reveal rise in mean annual temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns across the globe. The climate change has direct effects on the agricultural sector, of which the livestock sector is a sub-set. The livestock sector supports the economy of developing and underdeveloped countries besides being one of the major source of protein nutrition across the world. However, it is sensitive to climate change and has restricted abilities to cope up with the stress generated from such variations. Alterations in climatic factors have direct effects on livestock health that affect their productivity and reproductive efficiency. This can lead to decreased production of milk, meat, eggs, wool, etc. causing the livestock sector to incur financial losses. Erratic patterns of rainfall and drought may affect the growth of feed crops and water supply for the livestock sector. Insufficient nutrition and drinking water can further weaken them making them vulnerable to diseases. The condition is further aggravated because of the behaviour of parasites, pathogens and vectors in response to climate change. Warmer climates have been found to be associated with their augmented proliferation, virulence and transmission because of direct modifications of their life cycles and breeding patterns. The negative effects on animal health, either directly or due to diseased conditions, increase their mortality rate. Literature highlights a dearth of research in this field despite its importance. Understanding these implications through proper monitoring can help to develop sustainable livestock management programmes in the near future with reduced financial losses.

Review Article

TEMPLE WASTE UTILIZATION, ITS MANAGEMENT AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES TO ATTAIN SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT

YOUNIS AHMAD HAJAM, RAJESH KUMAR, BHARTI SHARMA, ANKUSH SHARMA

UTTAR PRADESH JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY, Volume 42, Issue 22, Page 213-231

Management of “solid waste” is the big issue plaguing the universe and creating havoc to the environment. The generation of waste is increasing as a result of anthropogenic activities causing huge environmental pollution and global warming. Solid waste like kitchen waste, household waste, plastic waste, temple waste. possesses lots of pollutants like carbon. In the world, huge budget is spending to reduce and manage waste by opting landfill or incineration techniques. Temple waste coming out of temples is one of the main concerns, consisting of flowers, leaves, coconuts, grains, and fruits etc. majority of which are degradable. These ingredients are highly organic nature due to which temple waste also act as medium for the growth of microorganisms. The florets can be used in the preparation of many valuable and applicable products and in industries manufacturing perfumes, soaps, cosmetics, food etc. However, temple waste is usually thrown in running water or local water bodies causing water contamination and mortality of aquatic organisms. This review describes the hazards (environmental, human health, aquatic) caused by temple waste through various mechanisms illustrating contamination of water bodies and propagation of microbes, pests, rodents etc., as well as utilization of waste for conversion into useful products like manure, incense sticks, biochar, biofuel, pigments, papers and dyes. All these products have diverse applications in different industries thereby strengthening the concepts like “best out of waste” and “from the temple to the temple”. This review paves the aspect of environmental conservation, reduction in pollution and solve energy crisis.

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